A muckraker is a journalist, author, or filmmaker who investigates and exposes concerns that are usually shocking come the public. Generally, muckraking tends to be target at forces in power and the established institutions that society, frequently in a sensationalist and also tabloid manner.

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Given their name by Theodore Roosevelt once he likened their work to the male with the muck-rake in john Bunyans" Pilgrim"s Progress, the job of such writers is to expose the difficulties (the "muck") in society. Thus, if the American attribution has a usually positive connotation, implying a beneficial contribution to society by shedding light on the hurt of meant standards, brother "muckrakers" are reviled together being together dirty together the evils they disclose to the public. To do a an useful contribution come society, the muckrakers need to maintain a greater standard than that the those they expose.

Definition


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U.S. Chairman Theodore Roosevelt coined the ax "muckraker" in 1906.

A muckraker is an American English term for one that investigates and exposes concerns of corruption. They disclose violations the widely held values, such as political corruption, corporate crime, child labor, problems in slums and prisons, unsanitary problems in food processing plants (such together meat), fraudulent cases by manufacturers the patent medicines, labor racketeering, and comparable topics. In brother English however the hatchet is used to sensationalist scandal-mongering journalist, not driven by any kind of social principles.


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The ax "muckraker" is attributed come Theodore Roosevelt who likened investigative journalism to the "Man v the Muck-rake" in man Bunyan"s "Pilgrim"s Progress"

President Theodore Roosevelt is attributed as the source of the hatchet "muckraker." during a decided in 1906 that likened the journalists to the man with the Muck-rake, a character in man Bunyan"s Pilgrim"s development (1678), that rejected salvation to focus on filth.

While Roosevelt supposedly disliked what he experienced as a details lack of optimism of muckraking"s practitioners:

the guy with the Muck-rake, the male who can look no method but downward, v the muck-rake in his hand; that was readily available a celestial crown for his muck-rake, but who would neither watch up nor regard the crown he to be offered, however continued come rake to self the filth that the floor.

His speech strongly supported in favor of the muckrakers:

There are, in the human body politic, economic and social, many and grave evils, and also there is urgent necessity for the sternest battle upon them. There have to be non-saw exposure of and also attack ~ above every evil male whether politician or service man, every angry practice, even if it is in politics, in business, or in society life. I hail together a benefactor every writer or speaker, every man who, on the platform, or in book, magazine, or newspaper, through merciless severity provides such attack, provided always that he in his turn remembers the the strike is the use just if it is absolutely truthful. ... The males with the muck-rakes are regularly indispensable come the wellness of society; but only if they know when to avoid raking the muck.

History


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The term "muckraker" is most usually connected with a group of American investigative reporters, novelists, and also critics native the late 1800s to early on 1900s, but additionally applies to modern-day persons who follow in the tradition of those from that period.

Although the term "muckraking" might appear to have an unfavorable connotations (and go in brother society), muckrakers have actually most regularly sought come serve the public interest through uncovering crime, corruption, waste, fraud, and abuse in both the public and also private sectors. In the at an early stage 1900s, muckrakers burned light top top such concerns by creating books and also articles for well-known magazines and newspapers such together Cosmopolitan, The Independent, and also McClure"s. Your sensationalist style prospered from the yellow journalism of the period.

The rise of muckraking in the late nineteenth and also early twentieth centuries corresponded with the advent of Progressivism yet, if temporally correlated, the two space not intrinsically linked.

Some the the most famed of the early muckrakers room Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, and Ray Stannard Baker.

Contemporary muckraking

An essential example the mid-twentieth-century muckraker occupational is Ralph Nader"s Unsafe at any Speed (1965) which led to reforms in automotive manufacturing in the joined States. Nader"s publication led to a protect against in the manufacturing of the Chevrolet Corvair, among the an initial rear-engine American cars. Nader exposed safety concerns inherent in the design, implying that the manufacturers cared just for profit and not because that the stays of your customers. The book detailed claims of resistance by auto manufacturers to the introduction of security features, favor seat belts, and their basic reluctance to invest money on improving safety. It was a pioneering job-related of consumer advocacy, openly polemical however containing considerable references and material from sector insiders. The discontinuation the the Corvair to be controversial, however, since many thought the put in order style might have been altered for safety and also could have spurred the American car industry come produce better products.

Other so late twentieth century muckraking-type exposes include the work of Washington post journalists Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein that brought about the Watergate scandal and also the downfall of chairman Richard Nixon, and also columnist Gary Weiss"s work-related describing how wall surface Street firms to be infiltrated by organized crime figures throughout the 1990s.

Muckraking has continued into the twenty-first century, exemplified through Eric Schlosser"s fast Food Nation: The Dark next of the All-American meal (2001) that examined the regional and global influence the the united States rapid food industry. This publication has drawn comparisons come Upton Sinclair"s standard muckraking novel The Jungle.

Muckraking has actually become part of investigative journalism in the unified States. Journalism textbooks allude out the McClure"s muckraking standards are integral to modern investigative journalism.

Notable Muckrakers

Some notable muckrakers include:

Ray Stannard Baker (1870 – 1946) complying with the color Line, became the an initial prominent reporter to examine America"s gyeongju divide.Barbara Ehrenreich—journalist and author, Nickel and also Dimed: ~ above (Not) gaining By in America.Joshua Micah Marshall—writer and journalist, released the muckraking blog TPM Muckraker, responsible for helping to rest the 2006-2007 united state Attorney shoot scandal, the battle each other Cunningham corruption case and others.Michael Moore—documentary filmmaker, director of Roger and Me, Bowling because that Columbine, Fahrenheit 911, and also SiCKO.Ralph Nader—consumer civil liberties advocate; Unsafe at any kind of Speed (1965), exposed unsafe auto manufacturing.Jack Newfield—muckraking columnist; created for brand-new York Post; and also wrote The full Rudy: The Man, the Myth, the Mania (2003).David Graham Phillips (1867 – 1911) composed an article in Cosmopolitan in April 1906 ~ above "The Treason the the Senate," exposing project contributors gift rewarded by details members the the Senate. This and also other similar articles caused the production of the seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution, which gives for the direct election that Senators through the world of a state fairly than your appointment through a state legislature.Eric Schlosser—author of fast Food Nation, an exposé of quick food in American culture.Gary Webb (1955 – 2004)—investigated Contra-crack cocaine connection, published as Dark Alliance (1999).Gary Weiss—American investigative journalist, columnist, and also author of two books that critically examine the ethics and also morality of wall surface Street, named "Muckraker" columnist because that Forbes.com.

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