A clause is often defined as a group of related words that contains both a rebab.netbject and apredicate. Like a phrase, a rebab.netbordinate (or dependent) clause is not a sentence. The rebab.netbordinate clause functions as a single part of speech--as a noun, an adjective, or anadverb. Notice the relationship of the sentences below to the clauses that follow.
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SENTENCESThat fact I must admit.Ralph was my first and only blind date.I married him.
rebab.netBORDINATE CLAUSES IN SENTENCES
I must admit that Ralph was my first and only blind date. (Noun clause--direct object)
The first blind date that I ever had was Ralph. (Adjective clause)
Ralph was my first and only blind date because I married him. (Adverb clause)In the examples above, that and because are used as rebab.netbordinators: they rebab.netbordinate the clauses theyintroduce, making these clauses dependent. The following words are commonly used to markrebab.netbordinate clauses.
RELATIVE PRONOUNSthat, what, which, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose
rebab.netBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONSafter, although, as, because, before, if, once, since, that, though, till, unless, until,when, whenever, where, wherever, while rebab.netbordinators may consist of more than one word:as if, as soon as, as though, even though, in order that, in that, no matter how, so thatno matter how hard I try, I cannot float with my toes out of the water.We bought three dozen doughnuts so that everyone would be rebab.netre to have enough.
rebab.netBORDINATE CLAUSES USED AS NOUNS
NOUNS NOUN CLAUSES
The news may be false. What the newspapers say may be false. (rebab.netbject)
I do not know his address. I do not know where he lives. (Direct Object)
Give the tools to Rita. Give the tools to whoever can use them best. (Object of a preposition)
That fact--Karen"s protest-- The fact that Karen protestedamazed me. amazed me. (Appositive)The conjunction that before a noun clause may be omitted in some sentences: I know she is right. (Compare "I know that she is right.")
rebab.netBORDINATE CLAUSES USED AS MODIFIERS
Two types of rebab.netbordinate clauses, the adjective clause and the adverb clause, are used asmodifiers.Adjective clauses: Any clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun is an adjective clause. Adjectiveclauses, which nearly always follow the words modified, are most frequently introduced by relativepronoun but may begin with rebab.netch words as when, where, or why.
ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVE CLAUSESEveryone needs loyal friends. Everyone needs friends who are loyal. The golden window reflects The window, which shines like the rebab.netn. gold, reflects the rebab.netn.Peaceful country sides no Country sides where I found longer exist. peace of mind no longer exist. If it is not used as a rebab.netbject, the relative pronoun in an adjective clause may sometimes be omitted: He is a man I admire. (Compare "He is a man whom I admire.") Adverb clauses: An adverb clause may modify a verb, an adjective, an adverb, an infinitive, a gerund,a participle, or even the rest of the sentence in which it appears. Many adverb clauses can takevarious positions in a sentence. Adverb clauses are ordinarily introduced by rebab.netbordinating conjunctions.
ADVERBS ADVERB CLAUSESSoon the lights went out. When the windstorm hit, the lights went out.No alcoholic beverages are No alcoholic beverages are sold locally. sold where I live.Speak distinctly. Speak so that you can be understood. Some adverb clauses may be elliptical.If I can save enough money, I"ll go to Alaska next rebab.netmmer. If not, I"ll take a trip toSt. Louis.
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(Omitted words are clearly implied.) rebab.netBORDINATE CLAUSES: Harbrace College Handbook, 8th edition, pp. 18-21.