Introduction

There is a good difference in the penetrating powers for alpha, beta, and gamma rays. That the three varieties of radiation, alpha particles are the easiest to stop. A paper of file is all that is essential for the absorb of alpha rays. However, it may take a material with a greater thickness and also density to prevent beta particles. Gamma rays have actually the most penetrating powers of all 3 radiation sources.

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Objective

The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate the interaction of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation v matter.

Absorber/Shielding Set
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Materials

radiation sources:Po-210 (alpha source)Sr-90 (beta source)Co-60 (gamma source)Geiger counterrail trackerabsorber set

Procedure

Part A

Place alpha radiation source into hole on wooden block that rail tracker.Set digital Geiger respond to to x1 scale and turn strength on. Allow the instrument to warmth up because that a few minutes.Record elevator activity.Arrange the polyethylene samples follow to thickness with the the very least thick first. Location the polyethylene in the special product holder top top the rail track. Relocate the Geiger counter and also slider beside the sample.Take 3 trial readings of radiation intensity for each thickness the polyethylene and also record in Table 4.1. The time compelled for every trial is 10 seconds. Because of fluctuations through the meter, far better results are derived when counting beats.Plot a graph because that this activity: thickness vs. Number of counts.

Part B

Replace the alpha resource with the Sr-90 (beta source).Check Geiger respond to for x1 setting.Arrange the plastic and lead samples follow to thickness v the least thick first. Place the very first sample in the material holder. Relocate the Geiger respond to slider beside the sample.Take 3 trial readings the radiation intensity for each thickness of all samples and also record in Table 4.2. The moment for counting number of beats is 10 seconds. Again, count the audible beats.Plot a graph for this activity.

Part C

Replace the beta source with Co-60 (gamma source).Check x1 scale position on the Geiger counter.Arrange the lead samples according to thickness through the least thick first. Location the very first lead sample in the product holder. Relocate the Geiger counter and slider beside the sample.Take 3 trial readings that radiation intensity for each thickness of all lead samples and also record in Table 4.3. The moment for counting variety of beats is again 10 seconds. Mental to count the audible beats.Plot a graph because that this activity.

Data

Table 4.1:ALPHA RAYS-POLYETHYLENE

Background __________ cpmpo-210Thickness (inches)ScaleTrial 1Trial 2Trial 3Average
0.0040
0.0080
0.020
0.030
0.062
0.125
0.250

Table 4.2: BETA-POLY and LEAD

Background __________ cpm Sr-90

Thickness (inches)ScaleTrial 1Trial 2Trial 3Average
Polyethylene
0.0040
0.0080
0.020
0.030
0.062
0.125
0.250
Lead
0.032
0.062
0.125
0.250

Table 4.3: GAMMA RAYS-LEAD

Background __________ cpm Co-60

Thickness (inches)ScaleTrial 1Trial 2Trial 3Average
0.032
0.062
0.125
0.250

Questions

Why allow time because that the Geiger counter to heat up?Is it crucial to take it background readings every day? EXPLAIN.What kind of outcomes would you expect if the very same alpha sample to be doubled in quantity?Is polyethylene an efficient shield because that beta radiation? Is lead? Explain.What results would you observe if you provided aluminum for shielding beta rays?From her graph, what thickness of lead is required to absorb Sr-90 beta rays? because that Co-60 gamma rays?What materials, various other than lead, are reliable for shielding gamma radiation?What lot of command is necessary to mitigate gamma radiation come one-half the a vault intensity count?What general statements can you make about the thickness of the taking in material top top the count rates?

Going Further

If the thickness of wait is 1.3 mg/cc, then just how long a column of air would certainly be required to absorb beta beam in the source Sr-90?How lengthy would a pillar of air must be to mitigate the strongness of Co-60 gamma rays by a factor of 10? Explain.Make a chart comparing alpha, beta, and gamma radiation, including such information on charge, mass, penetration, speed, and energy.

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This file was developed by the atom Science division of the Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratory.