L. Swint-Kruse, K.S. Matthews, in Encyclopedia of organic Chemistry (Second Edition), 2013

Multiple Sites/Multiple Targets – DNA Looping

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In addition to the primary operator, LacO, presented in Figure 1, 2 ‘pseudo-operator’ sequences are existing within the lac operon sequence and also contribute come repression. The DNA order of the pseudo-operators are really similar, but not identical, to LacO and are bound by LacI an ext weakly. The visibility of two DNA-binding website in LacI protein tetramer said a mechanism whereby pseudo-operators can enhance repression – one LacI tetramer can bind two different operators and also generate a looped DNA structure. Experimental proof for DNA looping has actually been obtained from a range of laboratories. Recent evidence indicates that the angle between the two dimers should open because that loop formation to occur, as portrayed in Figure 4. These looped frameworks are extremely stabilized, accounting for the far-reaching repression the lacZYA expression observed in bacter cells. Indeed, DNA containing multiple operator sequences and also with the supercoiling thickness characteristic that E. Coli exhibits a half-life because that the facility that over 2 days. However, also these looped complexes respond rapidly (in much less than 30 s) to the presence of inducer sugars, allowing quick adaptation to an outside lactose resource that might be transient.


Figure 4. Looped DNA structure. The teal blue curved line depicts the lac operon DNA (with shading to show nearness to observer), which has three possible LacI-binding web page (two of which, O1 and also O2, are shown bound come LacI). The pseudo-operator sequence O2 is located within the lacZ gene, and also the main operator succession O1 overlaps the promoter sequence for the lacZYA metabolic gene (Figure 1). Tetrameric LacI is displayed at the bottom that the number as simultaneously connecting with O1 and O2. This framework loops the DNA and also generates a complicated with really high stability.

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Note that the dimers in ~ a LacI tetramer different and adopt a bigger angle between them when looping between O1 and O2 than in the absence of looping (i.e., the structure presented in Figure 3(a)). The need for flexibility in between the dimers because that looping to take place is sustained by experimental evidence.