Leapfrogging to Tokyo

“Leapfrogging” to be the ally strategy that bypassing and also isolating fortified positions by focusing on strategically vital islands.

You are watching: Which of these statements about island hopping is true


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLeapfrogging to be a armed forces strategy the entailed bypassing and isolating heavily fortified Japanese positions while prepare to take end strategically necessary islands. It source from island hopping.Island hopping entailed acquisition over an island and also establishing a military base there. The base was in turn used as a launching allude for the attack and takeover of another island.U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz was appointed the title of “Supreme Allied command Pacific s Areas,” and also in the other significant theater in the Pacific region, well-known as the south West Pacific theater, Allied forces were commanded by U.S. Basic Douglas MacArthur. Both Nimitz and MacArthur applied leapfrogging and also island hopping as significant strategies.Leapfrogging was based upon both seaborne and air strikes to blockade and also isolate Japanese bases, weakening their garrisons and also reducing the Japanese capacity to resupply and also reinforce them.Leapfrogging would enable U.S. Forces to reach Japan more quickly and also not expend the time, manpower, and also supplies to record every Japanese-held island ~ above the way. The would likewise give the Allies the benefit of surprise and also keep the Japanese turn off balance.Key TermsLeapfrogging: A military strategy work by the Allies in the Pacific War versus the Axis strength (most notably Japan) during civilization War II. That entailed bypassing and isolating heavily fortified Japanese location while preparing to take over strategically necessary islands.Island hopping: A military strategy to work by the Allies in the Pacific War versus the Axis powers (most notably Japan) during world War II. That entailed taking over an island and also establishing a army base there. The basic was in turn used together a launching suggest for the attack and takeover of an additional island.

Leapfrogging

Leapfrogging was a army strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War versus the Axis powers (most especially Japan) during civilization War II. It entailed bypassing and also isolating heavily fortified Japanese positions while prepare to take end strategically necessary islands. Leapfrogging originated from island hopping, a strategy with which leapfrogging is sometimes misleadingly confused. Island to dance entailed taking over one island and establishing a army base there. The basic was consequently used as a launching suggest for the attack and also takeover of one more island. The an outcome of island hopping was a chain of developed bases if the an outcome of leapfrogging was subduing particular strategically necessary islands while damaging military bases on other islands and also thus isolating them in the process. Each of the strategies had its advantaged and also was employed in the Pacific War.

Background

On December 7, 1941, ~ failing to settle a dispute with the United states over Japan’s plot in China and French Indochina, the Japanese attacked the U.S. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The strike crippled many of the U.S. Pacific fleet’s battleships and also started a officially state that war between the two nations. Strikes on British realm possessions in the Pacific, beginning with an strike on Hong Kong practically simultaneous v the Pearl harbor attack, carried the joined Kingdom, Australia, and new Zealand right into the conflict. In launching this war, Japanese leaders sought to neutralize the U.S. Fleet, take possessions well-off in natural resources, and obtain strategic armed forces bases to safeguard their far-flung empire.

The Pacific s theater officially came into existence on march 30, 1942, once U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz was appointed the title of “Supreme Allied command Pacific ocean Areas.” In the other major theater in the Pacific region, recognized as the south West Pacific theater, Allied forces were commanded through U.S. General Douglas MacArthur. Both Nimitz and MacArthur, overseen through the U.S. Joint chiefs and the western Allies an unified chiefs that staff, used leapfrogging and also island dance as major strategies. Forces led through Admiral Chester Nimitz, through a smaller land force and larger fleet, would development north towards the island and capture the Gilbert and Marshall Islands and the Marianas, going typically in the direction the the Bonin Islands. The southerly prong, led by basic MacArthur and with larger land forces, would take the Solomons, new Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, proceeding toward the Philippines.

Rationale and Use

Leapfrogging was based on both seaborne and also air attacks to blockade and isolate Japanese bases, weakening your garrisons and reducing the Japanese capacity to resupply and also reinforce them. Thus, troops on islands that had been bypassed, such together the significant base at Rabaul, were useless come the Japanese battle effort and left to “wither top top the vine.” MacArthur considerably supported this strategy in his initiative to gain back the Philippines. It began to be enforced in late 1943 in operation Cartwheel. When MacArthur declared tohave developed the strategy, it at first came the end of the navy.

Leapfrogging had actually a number of advantages. It would enable U.S. Forces to with Japan much more quickly and also not expend the time, manpower, and also supplies to capture every Japanese-held island ~ above the way. The would additionally give the Allies the advantage of surprise and also keep the Japanese off balance.


*

MacArthur, Roosevelt, and Nimitz in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, July 26, 1944: This photograph shows general Douglas MacArthur (left) and also Admiral Chester Nimitz (right) flanking chairman Franklin D. Roosevelt (middle).


Key Takeaways

Key PointsTen work after the assault on Pearl Harbor, Chester W. Nimitz to be selected to offer as command in chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet, with the rank of admiral.As rapidly as ships, men, and also material became available, Nimitz shifted to the offensive and defeated the Japanese marine in the fight of the Coral Sea, the pivotal battle of Midway, and in the Solomon islands campaign.In the last phases in the war in the Pacific, Nimitz struck the Mariana Islands, inflicting a decisive defeat on the Japanese fleet in the fight of the Philippine Sea, and capturing Saipan, Guam, and Tinian.In the Philippines, Nimitz’s pearls turned back powerful task forces of the Japanese fleet, a historical victory in the multi-phased battle of Leyte Gulf.Nimitz culminated his long-range strategy with effective amphibious assaults on Iwo Jima and also Okinawa.On September 2, 1945, Nimitz signed because that the unified States once Japan formally surrendered on plank the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.Key TermsBattle of Midway: Widely regarded as the most important naval battle of the Pacific campaign of human being War II. Between June 4 and 7, 1942, just six months after Japan’s assault on Pearl Harbor, and also one month ~ the battle of the Coral Sea, the U.S. Navy decisively beat an imperial Japanese navy attack versus Midway Atoll, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese fleet.Solomon archipelago Campaign: A significant campaign of the Pacific War of civilization War II that began with Japanese landings and also occupation the several areas in the brothers Solomon Islands and Bougainville, in the are of new Guinea, during the very first six month of 1942.Battle for Leyte Gulffrom: Generally thought about to it is in the biggest naval battle of world War II and, by some criteria, possibly the biggest naval battle in history. That was fought in waters that the Leyte Gulf, near the Philippine archipelago of Leyte, Samar, and also Luzon, October 23 26, 1944, between combined American and also Australian forces and also the royal Japanese Navy.Battle the the Coral Sea: A significant naval battle in the Pacific theatre of world War II between the imperial Japanese Navy and Allied naval and also air pressures from the joined States and also Australia combated May 4–8, 1942. Although a tactical victory for the Japanese in terms of ships sunk, the battle would prove to it is in a strategic win for the Allies.Battle the the Philippine Sea: A decisive naval fight of human being War II that got rid of the imperial Japanese Navy’s capability to conduct large-scale carrier action (June 19–20, 1944).Chester W. Nimitz: A five-star admiral the the U.S. Navy (1885–1966). He held the dual role of commander in chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet (CinCPac), because that US. Marine forces and also commander in chief, Pacific Ocean areas (CinCPOA), for U.S. And also Allied air, land, and sea forces during civilization War II. He to be the top U.S. Marine authority on submarines, as well as chief the the navy’s office of navigating in 1939. He served as cook of naval operations (CNO) from 1945 till 1947. He to be the joined States’ last surviving fleet admiral.

Background

Ten work after the attack on Pearl port on December 7, 1941, Chester W. Nimitz to be selected command in chef of the U.S. Pacific Fleet through the location of admiral. Assuming command in ~ the most vital period the the battle in the Pacific, Nimitz, despite the losses from the assault on Pearl Harbor and the shortage of ships, planes, and supplies, successfully organized his pressures to halt the Japanese advance. On in march 24, 1942, the newly created U.S.-British linked chiefs of employee issued a directive designating the Pacific theatre an area the American strategy responsibility. Six days later, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of employee (JCS) divided the theater into three areas: the Pacific Ocean areas (POA), the southern West Pacific Area (SWPA, commanded by general Douglas MacArthur), and also the South east Pacific area. The JCS designated Nimitz as, “Commander in Chief, Pacific ocean Areas,” v operational manage over every Allied devices (air, land, and sea) in that area.


Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz: Nimitz was a five-star admiral that the U.S. Navy.


Nimitz’s battle in the Pacific

As quickly as ships, men, and also material came to be available, Nimitz change to the offensive and defeated the Japanese marine in the fight of the Coral Sea (May 4–8, 1942), in the pivotal fight of Midway (June 4–7, 1942), and in the Solomon islands campaign. Prior to the fight of the Coral Sea, Nimitz and also and his staff questioned deciphered messages and also agreed that the Japanese were most likely initiating a significant operation in the Southwest Pacific in early on May v Port Moresby as the probable target. Nimitz’s staff also concluded that the Japanese operation can include transport raids on allied bases in Samoa and at Suva. Nimitz, ~ consultation v Admiral Ernest King, command in chief of the U.S. Fleet, made decision to challenge the Japanese operation by sending out all four of the Pacific Fleet’s easily accessible aircraft carrier to the Coral Sea. Return the Coral Sea area to be under MacArthur’s command, rear Admiral Fletcher (commanding Task force 17) and also Vice Admiral william F. Halsey (commanding Task force 16) were directed to proceed to report to Nimitz, not to MacArthur, while in the Coral Sea area.

During the battle of Midway, Admiral Nimitz had one priceless advantage: U.S. Cryptanalysts had partially damaged the Japanese Navy’s JN-25b code. Together a result, Nimitz knew the the Japanese had actually negated your numerical advantage by separating their pearls into 4 separate task groups, all too widely separated to be able to support every other. This dispersal result in couple of fast pearl being available to escort the transport Striking Force, limiting the number of anti-aircraft weapons able to defend the carriers. Nimitz calculated the the aircraft on his three carriers, to add those ~ above Midway Island, gave the U.S. Stormy parity v Yamamoto’s four carriers, mainly because American carrier air teams were bigger than Japanese ones. The Japanese, through contrast, remained nearly totally unaware of your opponent’s true strength and dispositions also after the fight began.

In the final phases in the battle in the Pacific, Nimitz struck the Mariana Islands, inflicting a decisive defeat on the Japanese fleet in the fight of the Philippine Sea (June 19–20, 1944; a decisive naval fight of human being War II that eliminated the imperial Japanese Navy’s capability to conduct large-scale carrier actions), and capturing Saipan, Guam, and Tinian. His fleet forces isolated enemy-held bastions that the main and eastern Caroline Islands and secured, in rapid succession, Peleliu, Angaur, and also Ulithi. In the Philippines, his pearl turned back powerful task pressures of the Japanese fleet, a historical victory in the multiphased fight for Leyte Gulf indigenous (October 24–26, 1944, the largest naval fight of world War II).

Fleet Admiral Nimitz culminated his long-range strategy by conducting effective amphibious attacks on Iwo Jima and Okinawa. In addition, Nimitz likewise ordered the U.S. Army Air forces to mine the Japanese ports and also waterways by air with B-29 Superfortresses in a successful mission called “Operation Starvation,” i beg your pardon severely interrupted the Japanese logistics. In January 1945, Nimitz relocated the headquarters that the Pacific Fleet front from Pearl Harbor to Guam because that the remainder that the war.

By an action of Congress, approved December 14, 1944, the great of fleet admiral of the U.S. Navy, the highest possible grade in the navy, to be established and also the following day, chairman Franklin Roosevelt appointed Admiral Nimitz to that rank. ~ above September 2, 1945, Nimitz signed because that the joined States as soon as Japan officially surrendered on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. ~ above October 5, 1945, which had actually been officially designated together “Nimitz Day”in Washington, D.C., Nimitz to be personally presented a gold Star for the 3rd award of the Distinguished service Medal by the chairman of the united States, “for especially meritorious service as commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet and Pacific ocean Areas, from June 1944 to august 1945….”


Nimitz signs Japanese surrender: Admiral Chester Nimitz, representing the united States, signs the tool of surrender, September 2, 1945, board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsOperation Cartwheel (1943–1944) was a major military strategy for the Allies in the Pacific theater of people War II the aimed in ~ militarily neutralizing the significant Japanese base in ~ Rabaul (New Guinea).Japanese forces had caught Rabaul indigenous Australian forces in February 1942 and also turned it right into their major forward base in the southern Pacific, and the key obstacle in the 2 Allied theaters. The eventual strategic plan to take end Rabaul to be formulated by general MacArthur and known together “Elkton III” or “Operation Cartwheel.”The offensive began with the landing in ~ Lae by the Australian 9th division on September 4, 1943. MacArthur eventually recorded the Japanese off balance and also cut off Japanese pressures in the Wewak area.The campaign showed the effectiveness of a strategy that avoided major concentrations of opponent forces and instead aimed in ~ severing the Japanese present of supply and communication.Following the campaign, MacArthur formulated strategy for the Philippines campaign, which had the fight of Leyte Gulf, the biggest naval fight of civilization War II.Key TermsBattle the Leyte Gulf: Generally thought about to be the largest naval fight of civilization War II and, by part criteria, probably the biggest naval fight in history. That was fought in waters that the Leyte Gulf, near the Philippine archipelago of Leyte, Samar, and also Luzon, October 23–26, 1944, between linked American and Australian forces and the imperial Japanese Navy.Operation Cartwheel: A significant military strategy because that the Allies in the Pacific theater of WWII (1943–1944) the aimed at militarily neutralizing the significant Japanese basic at Rabaul (New Guinea).

Operation Cartwheel

Operation Cartwheel (1943–1944) to be a significant military strategy for the Allies in the Pacific theater of civilization War II. It aimed at militarily neutralizing the significant Japanese base at Rabaul (New Guinea). The procedure was command by the supreme Allied command in the southern West Pacific Area (SWPA)— basic Douglas MacArthur —whose forces advanced along the northeast coast of new Guinea and occupied nearby islands. Allied pressures from the Pacific s Areas command—under Admiral Chester W. Nimitz—advanced through the Solomon Islands toward Bougainville. The allied forces connected were native Australia, the Netherlands, new Zealand, the unified States, and various Pacific islands.

Strategy

Japanese forces had captured Rabaul, on brand-new Britain, in the territory of brand-new Guinea, from Australian forces in February 1942 and also turned it right into their significant forward base in the south Pacific, and the key obstacle in the 2 Allied theaters. MacArthur formulated a strategic outline, the Elkton Plan, to record Rabaul indigenous bases in Australia and brand-new Guinea. Admiral Ernest J. King, the cook of naval operations, propose a arrangement with comparable elements however under navy command. Military Chief of staff George C. Marshall, whose main goal was for the United states to concentration its efforts versus Nazi Germany in Europe and also not against the Japanese in the Pacific, suggest a compromise plan in i beg your pardon the task would be split into 3 stages, the very first under navy command and also the second two under MacArthur’s direction and the control of the army. This strategic plan, i m sorry was never formally adopted by the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff yet which was ultimately implemented, called for the catch of Tulagi (later Guadalcanal ) and the Santa Cruz archipelago (Operation Watchtower), the catch of the northeast coastline of new Guinea and the central Solomons, and the reduction of Rabaul and also related bases.

The protracted battle for Guadalcanal—followed through the unopposed seizure of the Russell islands (Operation Cleanslate) ~ above February 21, 1943—resulted in Japanese attempts come reinforce the area through sea. MacArthur’s air forces countered in the fight of the Bismarck Sea (March 2–5, 1943). The devastating losses experienced by the Japanese triggered Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto come initiate operation I walk (or operation “I”), a series of waiting attacks versus Allied airfields and shipping in ~ both Guadalcanal and new Guinea, which ultimately resulted in Yamamoto’s death.

MacArthur had actually presented Elkton III, his revised arrangement for taking Rabaul prior to 1944, top top February 12, 1943. It called for an strike by MacArthur versus northeast brand-new Guinea and western brand-new Britain, and by Admiral wilhelm F. Halsey, Jr. (then in command the the south Pacific Area) versus the central Solomons. This arrangement required seven an ext divisions 보다 were already in the theater, increasing objections from the British. The joint Chiefs responded through a directive the approved the setup using forces already in the theater or en route to it, and also delaying that implementation by 60 days. Elkton III then became Operation Cartwheel.

Operations

In new Guinea, a nation without roads, large transportation the men and materials would need to be completed by aircraft or ships. The offensive began with the landing in ~ Lae through the Australian 9th division on September 4, 1943. The next day, MacArthur watched the landing in ~ Nadzab through paratroops of the 503rd Parachute Infantry. His B-17 do the expedition on 3 engines because one failed quickly after leaving harbor Moresby, yet he insisted that it paris on come Nadzab. For this, he to be awarded the air Medal.

In early on November, MacArthur’s setup for a westward advancement along the coastline of new Guinea to the Philippines was incorporated into plans for the war versus Japan. Three months later, airmen reported no signs of enemy activity in the Admiralty Islands, and MacArthur ordered an amphibious landing there, commencing the Admiralty archipelago campaign. The took 6 weeks that fierce fighting before the 1st Cavalry department captured the islands.

MacArthur eventually recorded the Japanese off balance and cut off Japanese forces in the Wewak area. Since the Japanese were not expecting an attack, the garrison to be weak, and also Allied casualties were correspondingly light. However, the terrain turned out to be less suitable for airbase advancement than an initial thought, forcing MacArthur to seek better locations more west. The campaign showed the efficiency of a strategy that avoided significant concentrations of adversary forces and also instead aimed in ~ severing the Japanese currently of supply and communication.

See more: How Much Mulch Is In A Bag S, Why Should I Buy Bulk? How Much Mulch Do I Need

The fight of Leyte Gulf

In July 1944, president Roosevelt summoned MacArthur to accomplish with that in Hawaii, “to identify the step of activity against Japan.” Nimitz and MacArthur agreed that the following step must be to development on the southern and central Philippines. The Philippines campaign included the battle of Leyte Gulf, the biggest naval fight of world War II and, by part criteria, probably the biggest naval battle in history. Adhering to MacArthur’s strategy, the battle was battled in waters of the Leyte Gulf, close to the Philippine archipelago of Leyte, Samar, and Luzon, native October 23 come 26, 1944, between linked American and also Australian forces and the imperial Japanese Navy. ~ above October 20, U.S. Troops attacked the island of Leyte as part of a strategy aimed at isolating Japan indigenous the countries it had occupied in south east Asia, and in particular, in ~ depriving the forces and industry of an important oil supplies. The fight consisted of four separate engagements between the the contrary forces: the battle of the Sibuyan Sea, the battle of Surigao Strait, the battle of Cape Engaño, and the fight off Samar, and other actions.