1) Antibodies are secreted into the blood and also mucosa, wherein they tie to and also inactivate international substances such as pathogens and also toxins (neutralization).2) antibodies activate the enhance system to damage bacterial cell by lysis (punching holes in the cabinet wall).3) antibodies facilitate phagocytosis of foreign substances by phagocytic cells (opsonization).
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Antibody-producing B cell are developed in the bone marrow and mature in the periphery. Throughout B-cell maturation, the antibody genes (immunoglobulin genes) undergo recombination, generating an substantial repertoire the antigen-binding website (the change region). This phenomenon is called “gene rearrangement.”
The gene locus encoding the H chain change region:The locus contains variety of around 100-300 V gene segments, about 25 D gene segments, and 6 J gene segments. One each of the V, D, and also J gene segments room selected and joined together.
The gene locus encoding the l chain change region:There are two loci: κ and also λ.The κ locus is composed of selection of about 40 V and also 5 J gene segments. The λ locus is composed of selection of about 30 V and also 4 J gene segments.
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One every of the V and also J gene segments room selected and also joined together.Immunoglobulins (antibodies) to many antigens are developed from a minimal number of genes by recombination of gene segments. Gene rearrangements likewise occur during T cabinet maturation in the thymus.