Alternate titles: Brønsted–Lowry definition, acids and also bases, proton concept of, proton concept of acids and also bases
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Key People:Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted...(Show more)Related Topics:acidionic acidproton donorproton acceptorconjugate acid-base pair...(Show more)

Brønsted-Lowry theory, also called proton concept of acids and also bases, a theory, introduced individually in 1923 by the Danish chemist john Nicolaus Brønsted and the English chemist cutting board Martin Lowry, stating that any type of compound that have the right to transfer a proton to any type of other link is an acid, and the compound that accepts the proton is a base. A proton is a nuclear fragment with a unit positive electric charge; it is stood for by the symbol H+ due to the fact that it constitutes the cell nucleus of a hydrogen atom.


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Overview of three theories that acids and bases: Arrhenius theory, Brønsted-Lowry theory, and also Lewis theory.

follow to the Brønsted-Lowry system a substance can duty as an acid only in the existence of a base; similarly, a substance can duty as a base just in the visibility of an acid. Furthermore, as soon as an acidic substance loser a proton, it forms a base, called the conjugate basic of one acid, and when a an easy substance gains a proton, it forms an acid called the conjugate acid of a base. Thus, the reaction in between an acidic substance, such together hydrochloric acid, and a straightforward substance, such together ammonia, may be stood for by the equation:



In stimulate to solve the various obstacles in the hydrogen–hydroxide ion meanings of acids and bases, a new, more generalized definition...

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In the equation the ammonium ion (NH+4 ) is the mountain conjugate come the basic ammonia, and the chloride ion (Cl-) is the base conjugate come hydrochloric acid.


The Brønsted-Lowry theory enlarges the variety of compounds thought about to be acids and bases to incorporate not only the neutral molecules (e.g., sulfuric, nitric, and acetic acids, and also the alkali metal hydroxides) but also specific atoms and molecules with confident and an adverse electrical dues (cations and anions). The ammonium ion, the hydronium ion, and some hydrated steel cations are thought about acids. The acetate, phosphate, carbonate, sulfide, and halogen ions are taken into consideration bases.

The editors of Encyclopaedia rebab.netThis short article was most recently revised and updated by Erik Gregersen, an elderly Editor.

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