describe the basic molecular framework of carbohydrates, and identify your monomers and also polymers; list the 3 subtypes the carbohydrates, and describe your structure and function.

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Carbohydrates (carbo- = “carbon”; hydrate = “water”) save on computer the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and only those elements with a couple of exceptions. The proportion of carbon to hydrogen come oxygen in carbohydrate molecules is 1:2:1. The ingredient carbon (C, carbo-) and the ingredient water (H20, -hydrate) offer the name to this group of necessary molecules.

Carbohydrates room classified into three subtypes: monosaccharides, (mono- = ”one”, “alone”; saccharide = “sugar, sweet”) disaccharides (di = “two”), and polysaccharides. (poly- = “many, much”). Monosaccharides and also disaccharides are also called simple carbohydrates, and also are normally referred to together sugars. Basic carbohydrates are small polar molecules, containing numerous –OH practical groups, which makes them hydrophilic (they dissolve well in water). Polysaccharides, additionally called complex carbohydrates, are large non polar molecules, and also they space not hydrophilic.

The figure below shows the most usual monosaccharides: glucose, fructose and also galactose (six-carbon monosaccharides), and also ribose and deoxyribose (five-carbon monosaccharides). Keep in mind that they room all called using the suffix –ose, which means sugar. Carbohydrates are regularly narebab.net “somethingose”.

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Figure (PageIndex1) this monosaccharides respect the proportion 1:2:1 discussed above: glucose (C6H12O6), fructose (C6H12O6), galactose (C6H12O6), ribose (C5H10O5), deoxyribose (C5H10O4, this one is lacking an oxygen). Keep in mind that carbohydrates have lots of hydroxyl functional groups (-OH)

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Figure (PageIndex2) there are different ways to represent a glucose molecule (C6H12O6). Two of the most usual are straight-chain type (left) and ring type (right). Carbon atoms in the vertices space not shown.

Disaccharides kind by a covalent bond between two monosaccharides. This kind of bond in between two monosaccharides is called a glycosidic bond, and also energy is neededto form it.

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Figure (PageIndex3) The disaccharide sucrose is forrebab.net when a monomer that glucose and also a monomer that fructose join in a dehydration synthetic reaction to form a glycosidic bond. In the process, a water molecule is lost (not shown in the figure). The lost water molecule is developed by -OH and -H shown in red. Oxygen creates covalent bonds v glucose on the left, and also fructose top top the right.

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Figure (PageIndex4) The most typical disaccharides: sucrose (C12H22O11), lactose (C12H22O11), and maltose (C12H22O11)

Polysaccharides space macromolecules written of recurring units that the same structure block, monosaccharides, likewise to a pearl necklace is composed of plenty of pearls. Us can likewise define polysaccharides together polymers assembled from numerous smaller covalently external inspection monomers. As presented in the Figures and Table below, three important polysaccharides in living organisms are glycogen, starch and cellulose. Glycogen and starch are used as power stores in animal and also plant cell respectively, when cellulose gives structural assistance in plants and also fiber come our diets.

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