The colony of Africa was component of a global European process reaching all the continents of the world. Europe colonisation and also domination adjusted the human being dramatically. Historians argue the the rushed imperial conquest of the african continent by the european powers began with King Leopold II the Belgium as soon as he involved European strength to acquire recognition in Belgium. The Scramble for Africa take it place during the brand-new Imperialism between 1881 and 1914. The focus of this lesson will be top top the causes and results of europe colonisation of the african continent, through special emphasis on the Ashanti kingdom (colonised through the British as the yellow Coast, and also today the live independence African nation of Ghana).

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European colonisation of Africa in the so late 19th century

Africa before European colonisation

Due to worldwide insufficiency of civilization knowledge, the size and abilities that Africa as a continent to be majorly undermined and oversimplified. Before colonisation, Africa was qualified by widespread versatility in terms of movement, governance, and also daily lifestyles. The continent consisted not of close up door reproducing entities, fitted with unique unchanging cultures, but of much more fluid devices that would conveniently incorporate outsiders into the community with the problem that they embraced its customs, and where the feeling of obligation and also solidarity went past that of the atom family. Pre- early american societies were highly varied, whereby they were either stateless, operation by the state or run by kingdoms. The notion of communalism to be accepted and practiced widely; land was rebab.netanized commonly and also could not be purchase or sold, although other things, such together cattle, to be owned individually. In those cultures that were no stateless, the chiefs ran the daily affairs that the tribe in addition to one or an ext councils. The colony of Africa with Europe brought about many creates of government that are still visible today. Prior to colonisation, however, there were countless forms of federal government in Africa, ranging from powerful empires to decentralised teams of pastoralists and hunters.

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Africa before European colonialism Image source

The use of iron tools marks a far-reaching turning point in afri civilization. Steel tools intensified weaponry, permitted groups come manage and also clear dense and also thick forests, plough fields for farming, and also making daily life an ext convenient. Due to the fact that the iron tools enabled Africans to flourish in their rebab.netanic environment, they might live in larger areas which brought about the formation of kingdoms and states. Through this creation came the development of modern civilizations, usual languages, belief and also value systems, art, religion, lifestyle and also culture. Another unique characteristics of pre- european Africa was the favouring the oral heritage within these societies. Story were told and handed under generations in linguistic form. This poses a danger to the survival of these stories because certain aspects could be frebab.netotten or said in a various way. National borders were additionally not lot of a concern prior to colonization. European countries fought over African countries mainly for their herbal resources. Lines were drawn through African areas which had existed for plenty of years, and these lines can presently be seen as national borders. “A brief history of europe Colonisation in Africa”

Berlin Conference 1884

The Conference of Berlin and British ‘New’ Imperialism, likewise known as the “Congo conference” began. In 1884 at the inquiry of Portugal, German Chancellor rose oil von Bismark called together the major western strength of the human being to negotiate questions and end man over the control of Africa. The nations represented at the time had Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905), Turkey, and also the United says of America. Of these fourteen nations, France, Germany, an excellent Britain, and Portugal were the major players in the conference, regulating most of early american Africa in ~ the time. Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and also Spain were contending for strength within European strength politics. One means to demonstrate national pre-eminence was v the acquisition of territories about the world, consisting of Africa. One more reason because that European attention in Africa is the industrialization when major social problems grew in Europe: unemployment, poverty, homelessness, social displacement indigenous rural areas, etc. These social problems developed partly due to the fact that not all human being could be absorbed by the new capitalist industries. Europe saw the colonization of Africa as an chance to gain a surplus population, hence settler colonies were created. V this invasion, countless European countries saw Africa together being accessible to their disposal. However, several problems took place regarding which European nation would colonise a particular African country. Thus, in 1884, Portugal propose a conference in i beg your pardon 14 european countrieswould fulfill in Berlin concerning the department of Africa, there is no the presence of Africa.

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The an initial meeting at the Berlin Conference, 1884 image source

The initial task of the conference to be to agree that the Congo River and also Niger river mouths and basins would be thought about neutral and also open come trade. Despite its neutrality, part of the Kongo basin became a an individual Kingdom (private property) for Belgium’s King Leopold II and under his rule, over half of the region’s population died. At the time of the conference, just the coastal areas that Africa were colonized by the europe powers. In ~ the Berlin Conference the European colonial powers scrambled come gain regulate over the inner of the Continent. The conference lasted until February 26, 1885 – a 3 month period where colonial powers haggled over geometric limits in the internal of the continent, disregarding the social and linguistic boundaries currently established through the Native native African population. What ultimately resulted to be a hodgepodge the geometric limits that split Africa right into fifty irregular countries.

“The Scramble because that Africa and also the Berlin Conference”

Causes of colonisation

The reasons for afri colonisation were mainly economic, political and religious. During this time of colonisation, an financial depression was arising in Europe, and an effective countries such together Germany, France, and good Britain, were losing money. Africa appeared to be out of harm’s means and had wealth of raw products from i beg your pardon Europe might make money from. As result of cheap labour of Africans, Europeans conveniently acquired commodities like oil, ivory, rubber, palm oil, wood, cotton and gum. This products came to be of greater significance because of the introduction of the industrial Revolution. Africa’s colonisation was additionally as a an outcome of european rivalries, where Britain and also France had beenin a dispute due to the fact that the Hundred year War. These nations became affiliated in a race to acquire an ext territory on the african continent, yet this gyeongju was open up to every European countries. Britain had actually had some success in halting the slave trade around the shores that Africa. However inland the story was different -- Muslim traders from phibìc of the Sahara and on the East coast still traded inland, and also many local chiefs to be reluctant to offer up the use of slaves.

During the nineteenth century barely a year went by there is no a European expedition into Africa. The eight in exploration was prompted to a great extent through the production of the african Association by rich Englishmen in 1788, and also as castle travelled, they began to record details that markets, goods, and also resources for the affluent philanthropists who financed their trips. With the start of colonisation in Africa, morality became raising issue. The Europeans can not comprehend the visibility of the Muslim Swahili trade which do them want to carry out the 3 C’s: Christianity, Commerce, and also Civilisation. First, Europe proficient a Christian rebirth in the 19th century.

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A map the Africa depicting the herbal resoures the the continent has. Picture source

Missionaries started to focus on the huge working course with the goal of bringing spiritual salvation come the workers and also their families. The holy bible was made accessible to workers. Due to their huge successes, missionaries began to look past Europe. Objectives were created all end Africa. Missionaries did no serve as straight agents of europe imperialism, yet they attracted European governments deeper right into Africa. In their initiatives to preach Christianity, to bring western-style education to Africa and also to ingrain monogamy in african societies, missionaries often felt threatened by warfare within Africa. Hence, missionaries called on European governments for protection and also intervention. Second, for centuries, european explorers have travelled transparent the afri continent in your attempts to discover new things and to graph the african continent.

Trade would certainly be fine instantiated; the job-related of the Suez Canal company at the north-eastern reminder of Africa had been completed in 1869. Lastly, Livingstone thought that civilisation might be accomplished through goodgovernment andeducation. The combination of these three elements, Livingstone believed, would end human experiencing in Africa, and the ultimate level of civilisation would be completed within the continent. .Christianity would therefore carry out the moral ethics that would guide Africans, while education and commerce would certainly encourage afri to produce their own goods to trade v Europeans. For this to work a functioning and also legitimate governing mechanism was necessary to ensure the civil civil liberties of the people.

Patterns that colonisation: which nations colonised which components of Africa

By 1900 a significant part the Africa had been colonized by greatly seven european powers—Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and also Italy. After the conquest of african decentralized and central states, the europe powers set about establishing early american state systems. The colonial state to be the machine of governmental domination established to facilitate reliable control and also exploitation the the colonized societies. Early american states to be authoritarian, bureaucratic systems, partly because of their origins in army conquest and the racist ideological background of the imperialist enterprise. The French directed their attention to the energetic economies of the Niger Delta, the Lagos Hinterland and also the gold Coast.

Why European countries were able to colonise Africa so quickly

The European countries were able to colonise African nations rapidly because there to be rivalries between African leaders. These kings and also chiefs were completing with each other to be the richest and also most powerful within your tribes. During these rivalries, european leaders would certainly take advantage of the situation and persuaded part leaders to be on your side come fight versus other leaders. Herbal disasters also played a large role in the rapid and also easy colonisation of Africa. In 1895, a significant drought reached numerous regions in Africa which was brought about by a sudden decline in rainfall. Hardly any type of crops to be produced, and also the food shortage which followed caused the fatality of plenty of people and also animals. The little crops the were created were ruined by a pester of locusts. In enhancement to this plague, the cattle plague damaged outduring the 1890’s which eliminated cattle, sheep and also goats. This led to even an ext deaths that animals and people, and due to your physical and mental weakness, they to be unable come fight versus European powers.

European powers can easily take control of any source of floor by utilizing force and also violence. They accomplished this by using much more powerful weapons, and had the advantage of the freshly invented machine gun called the Maxim gun which was created in the 1880’s. This gun can fire eleven bullets every second, and also outdid the weapons that the African pressures had. African armies did not regulate to get hold of european weapons due to the fact that it was not sold to them. Thus Africans were at a armed forces disadvantage. An episode of brand-new diseases make an appearance during the late 1890’sand the first one was a range of smallpox epidemics. The Europeans who were already in Africa had developed immunity come these diseases due to previous experiences of this outbreaks in Europe. The aboriginal African population had no immunity or resistance to this diseases and also thus dilute the afri population. A large number of the African populace thus died out, or came to be too weak come fight back.

Results the colonization

The impact that colonisation had on Africa can be defined as both great and bad. In regards to European political exercise in Africa, every colonising nations share similar attributes. Colonial political equipment were un-democratic; Law and Order, as well as Peace, was a main objective of early american governments; early american governments short capacity and Colonial federal governments practiced "divide and rule." Firstly, early american governments walk not permit popular participation, and all political decisions were made by the tiny political elite with no or little input indigenous the afri population. Secondly, the African population was no satisfied with the means that Europeans enforced on their governing system without any proper representation, therefore the maintain of peace under the African populace was made an important priority for the colonial government. Thirdly, seeing together most colonial governments were no rich, they go not money the administer of their colonies fully. Although they were responsible for elevating the money for their very own colonies, castle still short the incometo appropriately develop and also maintain a effective governing system. This supposed that early american governments were not able to provide simple infrastructure, such as roads and communication networks, no one were they able come provide an easy social solutions such together education, health and wellness care, and housing. Lastly, the principle of “divide and also rule” meant that policies that intentionally weakened aboriginal power networks and institutions were implemented.

Due tothe lack of revenue within the colonies, tiny attention was given to fostering social readjust or development. Although all the swarms did not endure the same extent of society change, these colonies share the same features in terms of social change. Firstly, colonial and political practices resulted in a large scale movement of people. In some areas, movements were mainly from one landscape area come another. In various other places, the migration was from rural areas to city areas. These movements brought about dislocation of peoples that impacted culture and culture. Social and social beliefs and also practices were challenged by this migrations. Long-held practices had to be adapted, and also at times were completed abandoned, come fit the brand-new colonial circumstances. Secondly, and also partly because of the very first consequence, the dislocation of families likewise occurred. Men mainly left the family members to occupational in mines and on plantations, leaving your wives and children behind. As a result, women and teens were forced to take on brand-new roles and also to cope in lack of their husbands and also fathers. As result of colonialism, the African family members structure had been severely changed.

Prior come colonialism, the expanded family framework (family that extends past the immediate family) was the norm in many African societies, yet by the finish of colonial era, the nuclear family members (family consisting of a pair that adults/ parents and their children) was ending up being the share in plenty of African countries. Thirdly, urbanization emerged as emigration was imposed. During colonialism, urbanization occurred fairly rapidly in plenty of African colonies. A variety of pre-colonial afri societies had towns and tiny cities. However, also in these societies, most people were engaged in agriculture in rural villages or homesteads. Metropolitan living result in alters in economic activities and occupation, and also in transforms in the way people lived. These alters often tested existing values, beliefs, and social practices. Fourthly, the spiritual beliefs of africans were adjusted or changed. A tiny percentage the the African populace regarded themselves as Christians, and also today more than fifty percent of the African populace is Christians. Colonial rule noted an atmosphere in which Christianity, in many forms, spread in countless parts that Africa. When Islam was widespread in Africa prior to the resulting colonialism, it likewise benefited native colonialism. British and French colonial officials actively discouraged Christian mission occupational in Muslim areas.

Lastly, the public education and learning system of african was likewise changed. The bulk of colonial governments did small to assistance schools. Most formal schooling African swarms were a an outcome of the occupational of missionaries. Missionaries felt that education and also schools were important to their mission. Your primary problem was the conversion of people to Christianity. Missionaries believed that the capability of African individuals to check out the bible in their own language was crucial to the counter process. However, most mission cultures were no wealthy, and they might not assistance the number of schools that they yes, really wanted. Consequently, with minimal government support, many African kids did no go come school during the colonial era. In truth at the finish of early american rule, no nest could state that more than fifty percent of their kids finished elementary school school, and also far fewer attended second school.

“Colonialism’s influence on Africa”

Case Study: The Ashanti kingdom

The shore of West Africa before the arrival of Europeans

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The city of Elmina, located in the Gold coast West Africa, in the so late 19th century. photo source

West africans developed comprehensive self-contained trade system, based on skilled manufacture. Native the 8th century Muslim traders, from phibìc Africa and Arab countries, started to reach the region. Gradually, communities began to transform to Islam. By the finish of the 11th century some entire states, and influential people in others, to be Muslim. At the exact same time, West African trade slowly increased towards Egypt and possibly India. Arabic texts cite that indigenous the late 8th century Ghana was thought about "the land of gold". Mali also possessed good wealth. In 1324-5, when Mansa Musa, its emperor, do a expedition to Mecca, he take it so lot gold through him the in Egypt, i beg your pardon he likewise visited, the value of the steel was debased. Prior to the European voyages of exploration in the fifteenth century, african rulers and merchants had established trade web links with the Mediterranean world, western Asia, and the Indian s region. Within the continent itself, neighborhood exchanges among surrounding peoples fit into a greater structure of long-range trade.

The Ashanti and their early call with european traders and also explorers

The Ashanti kingdom, or Asante, overcame much the the contemporary state that Ghana. It to be ruled through an country group called the Akan, which subsequently was written of up to 38 subgroups, such as the Bekiai, Adansi, Juabin, Kokofu, Kumasi, Mampon, Nsuta, Nkuwanta, Dadussi, Daniassi, Ofinsu, and Adjitai. Gold Coast began encountering european traders in the mid-1400s, once the Portuguese began trading with seaside peoples. By the ten century, many European trading giants including the British, Dutch and also French started building fortifications follow me the shore in order come assert their positions. These interactions to be to have actually a profound result on African coastal settlements and also African institutions came under significant European influence very early on. West Africa had actually a long background of link to trans-Saharan gold trade, and from the 15th century was attracted into trade with Europe, in gold and also increasingly in slaves. The Ashanti kingdom had emerged from the mid- 17th century, benefitting from access both to rich agricultural resources and also gold, much of the work for manufacturing of i beg your pardon was provided by a residential slave trade.

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The growth of the Asante Kingdom,1700-1807 photo source

Many components of West Africa was still unknown come the remainder of the world, thus By the so late 15th century and also early 16th century numerous European nations like Portugal started to send the missionaries and explorers come investigate assorted parts that Africa and West Africa in particular. As early as in the 19th century europe powers choose France, Germany, and also Britain similarly sent variety of missionaries, explorers, traders and also philanthropists in West Africa. These groups were sent out in Africa to investigate the required knowledge about Africans, their history and culture, mainly knowledge about raw materials, visibility, potential areas and also the nature the African populace British traders had actually operated off what to be to become known together the “Gold Coast” with small direct intervention by brothers authorities.

When the Ashanti kingdom proved ambitions to broaden its manage southwards in negotiating treaties through African authorities and protecting trade interests, the British invaded Ashanti in 1874 and also burnt the capital. The majority of europe Explorers spent their time to investigate and also to information the interior and coast the West Africa to assist European powers that were searching areas with potential products as European countries were experiencing mushrooming of industries. Explores assisted the European vendor groups; penetration the west Africa internal in 18th century was real a difficult and an overwhelming but v the help of explorers, European vendor groups had advantage of commerce in West Africa easily with assurance of protection of themselves and their commerce commodities.

The British and also the colonisation of the gold Coast

As Britain significantly colonised an ext and an ext African countries, the brothers had become the leading power along the coast, and they began annexing and laying claim to territory gradually. The development of the Asante kingdom towards the coastline was the significant cause of this, as the British began to fear that the Asante would involved monopolise coastal trade in your place. The British put the branch of neighbouring Sierra Leone, i beg your pardon was already annexed, in fee of british forts and settlements along the coast. He created an unfavourable opinion the the Asante, and began the long procedure of attempting to lug them under brother control. However, problems over jurisdiction the the area recognized as Ashanti resulted in war in between the British and also the Asante, and in 1824, the Asante prospered in killing the Governor and also seven the his men. In retaliation, the brothers (with the help of tribes oppressed by the Asante, consisting of the Fante and the Ga) to win the Asante earlier in 1826, and successfully ended their prominence of seaside regions. The facility of british law and jurisdiction in the swarm was a gradual process, but the 1844 Bond v the Fante is popularly taken into consideration to it is in its true beginning. This recognised the strength of brothers officials and British typical law in the gold Coast and also over the Fante people. In 1850, a governor was appointed to Gold coastline who to be not additionally Governor that Sierra Leone, and this is how the nest of Gold coast was born. A supreme court was developed in 1853, and led come British common law coming to be enforced. However, all of this brought financial challenges, and also saw the plan of make the swarms pay come in to pressure in the Gold shore for the first time.

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European troops entering Kumane throughout the second Anglo- Ashanti War. Image source

The british fought versus the Ashanti 4 times in the 19th century and also suppressed a last uprising in 1900 before claiming the region as a colony. The first Anglo-Ashanti War started in 1823 after the Ashanti defeated a tiny British force under teacher Charles McCarthy and converted his skull into a drink cup. It finished with a standoff after the British win an Ashanti army near the coast in 1826. After 2 generations of loved one peace, an ext violence developed in 1863 once the Ashanti got into the brother "protectorate" follow me the coastline in retaliation for the refuse of Fanti leader to return a fugitive slave. The an outcome was one more stand-off, but the British take it casualties and also public opinion at residence started to watch the Gold shore as a quagmire. In 1873, the second Ashanti War started after the British took possession the the continuing to be Dutch trading posts along the coast, providing British that company a regional syndicate on the trade between Africans and also Europe. The Ashanti had long perceived the Dutch together allies, therefore they attacked the brothers protectorate follow me the coast. A British military led by basic Wolseley waged a successful campaign versus the Ashanti that brought about a brief occupation that Kumasi and a "treaty of protection" signed through the Ashantehene (leader) of Ashanti, ending the battle in July 1874. This battle was covered by a number of news correspondents (including H. M. Stanley) and the "victory" excited the creativity of the europe public.

In 1894, the 3rd Anglo-Ashanti War began following British push reports that a new Ashantehene called Prempeh committed acts the cruelty and also barbarism. Strategically, the British used the war to insure their control over the gold fields prior to the French, who were progressing on every sides, could claim them. In 1896, the British government formally annexed the regions of the Ashanti and also the Fanti. In 1900, a last uprising took place when the British governor of Gold coastline (Hodgson) unilaterally attempted to depose the Ashantehene by seizing the price of his authority, the golden Stool. The British were victorious and reoccupied Kumasi permanently. ~ above September 26, 1901 the British developed the Crown colony of yellow Coast. The readjust in the gold Coast"s condition from "protectorate" to "crown colony" intended that relations with the inhabitants of the region were taken on by the colonial Office, rather than the foreign Office. The implied the the brothers no longer recognized the Ashanti or the Fanti as having independent governments.

Results of colonisation of the Ashanti kingdom and Britain

In December 1895, teacher Francis Scott left Cape coastline with an expedition force. It come in Kumasi in January 1896. The Asantehene command the Ashanti to no resist. Soon thereafter, governor William Maxwell come in Kumasi as well. Asantehene Agyeman Prempeh was deposed and also arrested. Britain annexed the areas of the Ashanti and also the Fanti in 1896, and also Ashanti leaders to be sent right into exile in the Seychelles. The Asante Union to be dissolved. Robert Baden-Powell led the brothers in this campaign. The brother formally claimed the coastal regions to it is in the Gold coastline colony. A brother Resident to be permanently put in the city, and soon after ~ a brother fort.

As a final measure that resistance, the remaining Asante court no exiled come the Seychelles mounted an offensive against the British inhabitants at the Kumasi Fort. The resistance was led by Yaa Asantewaa, the Queen-Mother that Ejisu. From March 28 to late-September 1900, the Asante and British were involved in what would come to be known together the war of the golden Stool. On in march 28, 1900 governor Frederick Hodgson met v the chiefs in ~ Kumasi and demanded the the Asante hand over the sacred golden Stool to him. On April 25 the telegraph wires to be cut, and Kumasi was surrounded. Thirty British were dying every day in June. On June 23 three officers and 150 made a sortie and also managed come escape. Governor Hodgson got to Cape shore on July 10. The British sent 1,400 troops from various other parts that Africa, and also the Asante’s nine-month battle for self-reliance failed. In march 1901 governor Matthew Nathan visited Kumasi, and also he exile 16 Ashanti leaders and also imprisoned 31 in ~ Elmina. The people were disarmed, and only license is granted hunters could lug guns. The British linked the Asante confederacy as a Crown Colony and did not permit chiefs to ascendancy in Kumasi until Prempeh came to be Kumasihene in 1926. In the end, Asantewaa and also other Ashanti leader were additionally sent come Seychelles to sign up with Prempeh I. In January 1902, britain finally added Asante come its protectorates on the gold Coast.

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Asante to be forcibly incorporated into the brother Gold coastline colony in 1902, along with further territory to its immediate north which had actually not belonged come the kingdom itself. The later enhancement of british Togoland creates borders for the nest that are essentially those the exist for modern-day Ghana. Once the British beat the Ashanti people, they gathered all the gold prizes of the area. In enhancement to this, the Ashanti human being lost your independence. Lock did no receive any type of political legal rights in the gold Coast and power was taken away from legit Ashanti leaders. Civilization were compelled off your land onto farms or factory which ultimately made the british richer. The brothers then invested money on things that will boost their capacity to eliminate wealth and also natural resources from the gold Coast. They constructed railroads and also roads, yet only to their own advantage in order for commodities to be shipped turn off to Europe.