Disclosure statement

Peter Gies does not job-related for, consult, very own shares in or receive capital from any firm or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no appropriate affiliations beyond their scholastic appointment.

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number 1. Measured solar UVR data matches latitude for a number of locations in different countries. The southerly Hemisphere sites space Australia and brand-new Zealand and the Australian Antarctic stations (at just listed below 70°S) and are marked as AAD and with UVR levels well above the other high latitude locations due to the impacts of the ozone hole. Macquarie Island (at ~ 55°S) has annual UVR level that room unaffected through the ozone hole. The northern Hemisphere sites space the united state (which has actually the greatest data presented in this graph in ~ Mauna Loa in Hawaii at 20°N and also 3800m altitude), Japan and also a number of European counties.

Australians are predominantly descended native fair-skinned people used to europe conditions, therefore exposure to this high levels of solar UVR has resulted in very high rates of skin cancer in ~ the population. Deaths space now an ext than 1800 per year v a price to the health system of much more than $300M annually.

Generally the higher the sunlight is in the sky, the much shorter the course through the atmosphere and also the greater the solar UVR levels. The maximum height of the sun in the sky alters slowly native day come day, yet ozone over a place can adjust considerably from sooner or later to the next as result of natural variability. Levels deserve to rise or loss by as much as 100 Dobson systems (DU) in 24 hours.

For continuous clear sky days, large but natural transforms in ozone level in the stratosphere over cities can affect the solar UVR in ~ the surface significantly. Over there are differences of up to 30 come 40% from one day to the next, through measured everyday UV index values enhancing or diminish inversely with huge daily decreases or increases in ozone.

The ozone feet - uncovered in the early on 1980s - and its results on solar UVR levels over the Antarctic and possibly additional north could only include to the difficulty of populace UVR exposures. The southern hemisphere has been affected an ext by ozone depletion than the north hemisphere due to several geophysical and atmospheric determinants which have actually lead to the annual appearance the the ozone hole over Antarctica.

Measurements that the solar UVR levels at the Australian stations in the Antarctic (Casey, Davis and also Mawson) show as the ozone feet passes overhead every spring, the yearly levels that solar UVR in ~ the stations have actually increased significantly. They room now tantamount to that received at plenty of places in Europe. Interestingly, Macquarie Island, i beg your pardon is external the with of the Antarctic ozone hole, shows little in the way of increased annual solar UVR levels.

Because the yearly ozone hole breaks up in spring, pockets the ozone-depleted air sometimes move northwards and also pass end Australia adding slightly to the solar UVR levels over there (this was an initial observed in the late 1980s). Newly there have actually been incidents of low ozone end Australia as result of other atmospheric processes dragging low-ozone upper-atmospheric air down from equatorial areas (ozone is normally lower over the equator 보다 at mid-latitudes). In such situations UV table of contents levels in ~ the ground space elevated and also increase the potential because that adverse health impacts for populations living in this areas.

If no for the success that the Montreal Protocol it is very likely the the an ext densely populated areas of the globe would be topic to enhanced solar UVR with possibly severe after-effects for (human) health.

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This short article was co-authored by Stuart Henderson, who works through Peter Gies in the UVR group in the Radiation health Services Branch in ~ the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear safety Agency. Stuart Henderson has a phd in used Physics indigenous RMIT.