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That"s A N(ice) Temperature

Overview

In this 30-minute companion activity to The melt Point, teams of youngsters ages 8 come 13 experiment to uncover the melting and freezing point out of water and ice.

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What"s the Point?

Water can exist in various states; ice is the heavy state of water. Physical properties are features of a substance. They do not change. Physical properties encompass color, smell, freezing/melting point, and also density. The freezing suggest of water is the same as the melting point of ice: 32°F (0°C).

Materials

For every child

His/her envelope the mobile pieces Pencil or pen

For each team of 4 to 6 children:

1 thermometer the is quickly read, best in both Celsius and also Fahrenheit, and also that is for sure for use by youngsters 1 (7-ounce) cup or larger plastic container 1 (8-ounce) clear plastic cup enough foil come cover the top — however not the political parties — of the cup ~5 cups of ice cubes (not crushed ice) (Make certain the ice cubes are loosened and not stuck together.) 1 cup that crushed ice ~2 cup of absent salt (the kind used to do ice cream) 1 timer, stopwatch, watch, or clock with a 2nd hand record Towels

For the facilitator:

A irreversible marker 2 activity set-ups to usage for demonstration objectives (One will certainly be similar to the children"s, the other will encompass all steps but salt will be omitted.)

Preparation

check the thermometers to ensure that they room working. Prepare the activity set-ups you will use for demonstration throughout the activity.

Activity

Introduce the activity by mentioning the freezing temperatures that water and the melting temperatures of ice. in ~ what temperature does water freeze? 32°F (0°C). Asking them around their experiences with ice. Where do they uncover it? In their freezers. Exactly how cold is the freezer? have actually they ever before observed ice cream freezing outside? What to be the temperature? The kids may not recognize the numerical answer, yet they will discover it in the activity. Describe to the youngsters that this is called the "Freezing Point" the water. asking the children to do predictions about the melting allude of ice. in ~ what temperature perform they think ice melts? Again, the children may or might not know. Invite the youngsters to think around their experiences. Would certainly ice melt top top a warm summer day external in the Sun? What could that warm outside temperature be? would certainly it melt in the room in i m sorry the youngsters are at this moment? more than likely (hopefully!). What is the temperature that the room?
Facilitator"s Note: changes in temperature can reason water to change state, and these transforms occur at particular temperatures. New water transitions in between the solid and also liquid claims at 32°F (0°C) at sea level. In ~ temperatures below 32°F (0°C), liquid water freezes; 32°F (0°C) is the freezing point that water. At temperatures above 32°F (0°C), pure water ice melts and changes state native a solid to a liquid (water); 32°F (0°C) is the melting point. For many substances, the melting and also freezing clues are about the very same temperature.
Share through the youngsters that they are about to undertake part experiments to identify the freezing allude of water and the melting point of ice. Can they come up with some concepts for one experiment to uncover this information? Divide the children into groups of four to 6 and provide them v their Ice Investigator Journals, the cups of crushed ice, thermometers, pencils or pens, and file towels. Prompt lock to place the thermometer so the the pear is sitting in the middle of the cup of ice, toward the bottom. the is essential that the thermometer walk not touch the sides or bottom the the cup and that the ice is tightly pack in the cup. Invite the youngsters to document their guess in their Ice Investigator Journals. after ~ the thermometer has been in the ice cream for a few minutes, the kids can attempt to gain a temperature of your ice. The readings they collect may it is in close to 32°F (0°C), yet may differ for number of reasons. The warmer air in the room have the right to circulate in the waiting pockets in between the pieces of crushed ice, resulting in their readings to it is in warmer. Warmer readings may also arise since the thermometer to be in call with the sides or bottom of the cup, or the wasn"t buried deeply enough in the ice, or the children may have actually held it the end of the ice for too long prior to reading it. Chillier reading might occur due to the fact that standard household freezers are typically kept at about 0°F (-18°C) and also the ice will also be the cold. In addition, some thermometers check out differently. Repeat them that 32° Fahrenheit is the very same temperature as 0° Celsius. Castle are simply two names for the same temperature on various temperature scales. Scientists use the Celsius scale. Allow the ice cream to melt because that 5 come 10 minutes. have the youngsters collect a temperature reading once there is enough water come immerse the thermometer pear in the water. Invite each team come share the temperature readings indigenous the water. What readings did they find? The readings need to be nice close to 32°F (0°C). were they all similar? What does this call us around the temperature at which ice cream melts — or the melting point of ice? It 32°F (0°C).Share with the kids that the temperature in ~ which ice melts is referred to as the melting point. The melting suggest is the temperature in ~ which a solid turns to a liquid. The melting allude at which ice cream — a solid transforms to water — a liquid — is 32°F (0°C). Invite the kids to document their responses in your Ice Investigator Journals. If over there is time, enable the ice to melt for an additional 5 come 10 minutes. What execute the youngsters think the temperature will certainly be? Some that the kids may voice that the temperature will be warmer as an ext ice has melted. Have the youngsters take one more temperature reading. What do they find? The temperature is quiet the exact same as the original reading, around 32°F (0°C). The temperature will remain at 32°F (0°C) until all the ice is melted. When the ice cream is melted, the temperature of the water will warmth until that reaches the temperature the the room
Facilitator"s Note: contradictory to ours instincts, the melt water"s temperature will certainly not increase as lengthy as ice cream is present. The heat room continues to include energy to the cup, but every one of that energy proceeds to go into melting the ice fairly than elevating the temperature. As soon as all the ice has actually melted, that energy can begin to increase the water"s temperature.
questioning the youngsters how they can re-freeze the melted water without putting the cup back into the freezer. Is over there something they can do, based on what castle learned in the Melting allude Activity? do all substances have the same melting point?Invite the youngsters to record their responses in your Ice Investigator Journals. Provide the kids with the bigger container, ice cubes, foil, and salt. show the various steps the the experiment and have the children repeat what girlfriend do. cover the entire bottom that the large container through 1/3 the the ice cream cubes. cover the peak of the cup that consists of crushed ice and water indigenous the ahead experiments through foil. Place it in the middle of the container on height of the ice. Sprinkle fifty percent of the salt end the ice cubes. Create one more layer of ice over the salt utilizing 1/3 the the ice cubes. Sprinkle this layer through the remainder of the salt. Cover it through the continuing to be 1/3 the the ice cubes. Make sure that the height of the cup through crushed ice is a small above the class of ice and also salt.Remove the silver paper from the cup, ar the lid ~ above the container, and permit the experiment to sit undisturbed for about 10 minutes. As the facilitator, repeat the experimental architecture for one added container, yet leave out the salt. This container will organize only ice cream cubes and the cup the crushed ice and also melt. Re-publishing what you space doing with the children. Invite the children to guess what will occur to the cups of crushed ice that room in the containers the salt and also ice. will certainly the crushed ice continue to melt? will it prevent melting? will certainly it freeze? What will happen to the cup of crushed ice cream in the huge container that does no have any type of salt?
Facilitator"s Note: including salt lowers the melting point of water. Pure water and ice, maintained insulated native the warm external world, come to equilibrium end time. On a molecule level, water molecules room freezing ~ above the ice at the same rate as they room melting off of it. The entire water/ice systems is at the melting/freezing point, 32°F (0°C). Adding rock salt or any type of substance the dissolves in water disrupts this equilibrium. Under water molecules are communicating with the ice at any type of given moment, therefore the freezing rate is slowed. The salt has no effect on the melt rate, so much more melting occurs 보다 freezing — melt "wins" and the ice cream melts. In act so, heat energy is provided to rest the hydrogen binding that host the molecule in the ice together. In other words, the ice "uses up" some warmth indigenous the solution and also the temperature drops. Melting and also freezing again enhance rates ("tie") as soon as the temperature has dropped to the brand-new melting point. The higher the amount of salt, the reduced the freezing point (to a point; when there is enough salt that no an ext will dissolve, the freezing allude no longer decreases). Ocean water is about 3.5% salt; sea water freezes at about 28°F (-2°C). A 10% salt systems freezes at around 20°F (-6°C), and also a 20% solution freezes in ~ 2°F (-16°C).
Prompt the kids to brainstorm why lock think their predictions will certainly be correct.If you have already completed the companion activity, The melt Point, repeat them of their experiences with the salt on the ice cubes. After 5 come 10 minutes, inspect to watch if the predictions were correct! note that the experiment have to be stopped as soon as some of the water has actually refrozen, no all. Have the youngsters uncover their containers and lift the cup that crushed ice the end of the bowl. What perform the youngsters observe about the water that had remained in the bottom of their cup of crushed ice? Some of it has frozen (again).Have the kids take another temperature reading of the staying water. What execute they find? The water temperature is 32°F (0°C). If some of the water has actually frozen, what walk this mean that the freezing allude of water is? 32°F (0°C). Share the outcomes from the container of ice cream without salt. What carry out the kids observe around the water in the bottom of the cup of crushed ice? It is not frozen. Much more may have melted. Why walk melted ice in the ice/salt mixtures refreeze and also the melted ice in the various other container not? Because the temperature the the ice/salt mixture was cold sufficient to refreeze the water. Invite them to discover the temperature of the ice/salt mixture using one of their thermometers. At the same time, have them take the temperature that the crushed ice cream again. What carry out they find? The temperature that the ice/salt mixture is lower than 32°F (0°C); it might be together low as 0°F (-18°C). Note, the temperature will vary, depending upon how much salt is used, how well the salt dissolves, and also the temperature of her freezer. Have the youngsters continue to make notes about their result in your Ice Investigator Journals. Discuss their experimental findings. In ~ what temperature does fresh water turn to ice? 32°F (0°C). Share that the temperature at which fresh water freezes is dubbed the freezing point. The freezing point is the temperature in ~ which a liquid transforms to a solid. The freezing allude at i m sorry water — a fluid — turns to ice cream — a solid — is 32°F (0°C). based upon their experiments melt the crushed ice, at what temperature does ice cream melt to do water what is the melting point of ice? 32°F (0°C). How have the right to the melting and freezing temperature be the same? The melting suggest and freezing point are the exact same temperature for any specific substance: 32°F (0°C) for water. This temperature is referred to as the melting allude when temperatures rise over 32°F (0°C), leading to ice to melt and adjust state indigenous a solid to a fluid (water), as happened with the cup that crushed ice at room temperature. That is described as the freezing allude when temperatures decrease listed below 32°F (0°C), causing water to change state from a liquid to a solid (ice), as happened with the cup that crushed ice immersed in the very cold salt/ice mixture. Why is the ice/salt mixture colder? Salt lowers the freezing suggest of water. Salty water stays liquid at reduced temperatures — or freezes in ~ a chillier temperature — than fresh water.

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Conclusion

If the children have began to build a eye mobile, invite them come record any answers they uncovered on the proper pieces. Some of the questions that they can answer might include:

Water freezes in ~ _________F° / _________C° when water freezes, it turns into__________, i m sorry is a hard / liquid / gas. (circle one) ice melts at _________F° / _________C° as soon as ice melts, it provides __________.

Have them annotate any kind of new inquiries they have or exciting things they learned on the ideal shapes of one of two people raindrop, cloud, or snowflake.