The uterine tubes, also known together oviducts or fallopian tubes, room the female frameworks that deliver the ova from the ovary come the uterus each month. In the visibility of sperm and fertilization, the uterine tubes move the fertilized egg come the uterus because that implantation.

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Gross anatomy

The uterine tubes space uterine appendages situated bilaterally in ~ the superior portion of the uterine cavity. These tubes departure the uterus through an area referred to as the cornua, developing a connection in between the endometrial and also peritoneal cavities. Each uterine tube is around 10 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter and also is positioned within the mesosalpinx. The mesosalpinx is a wrinkles in the wide ligament. The distal section of the uterine tube ends in one orientation encircling the ovary. The primary function of the uterine pipe is to deliver sperm toward the egg, i m sorry is exit by the ovary, and to then enable passage of the fertilized egg ago to the uterus for implantation. <1>


A uterine tube contains 3 parts. The first segment, closest come the uterus, is referred to as the isthmus. The second segment is the ampulla, i beg your pardon becomes more dilated in diameter and is the most usual site for fertilization. The final segment, located farthest native the uterus, is the infundibulum. The infundibulum offers rise come the fimbriae, fingerlike projections that are responsible because that picking increase the egg exit by the ovary.


The arterial supply to the uterine tube is from branches that the uterine and also ovarian arteries; these little vessels are located within the mesosalpinx.

The nerve it is provided to the uterine tube is via both sympathetic and also parasympathetic fibers. Sensory fibers operation from thoracic segment 11-12 (T11-T12) and lumbar segment 1 (L1).


Lymphatic drainage the the uterine pipe is with the iliac and lateral aortic nodes. <2, 3>

Both ultrasonography and also hysterosalpingography deserve to be useful in diagnosing uterine anomalies. <4>


Microscopic anatomy

Histologically, the uterine tubes room composed of 3 layers—the mucosa, muscularis, and also serosa. The 3 different cell types within the mucosa that the uterine tubes include the columnar ciliated epithelial cells (25%), secretory cell (60%), and narrow peg cell ( <5>




Females v salpingitis or tubo-ovarian abscess usually current with fever and acute beginning of abdominal pain. The uterine tube in a patient through tubo-ovarian abscess frequently has pus in ~ its wall surfaces (pyosalpinx). The diagnosis is made with ultrasonography, laboratory studies, and culture of the cervix or operation specimen, if applicable.


Salpingitis and tubo-ovarian abscess room treated v intravenous antibiotics come cover common organisms that may have actually caused the ascending infection. Therapy is began before culture results space finalized. The score of therapy is to solve the symptoms and also to keep tubal function. (See additionally Pelvic Inflammatory condition Empiric Therapy and also Pelvic Inflammatory disease Organism-Specific Therapy.) surgery to eliminate the uterine pipe is warranted in part cases, depending upon the severity that infection.


Sequelae of these infections include infertility, chronic pain, and also increased threat for ectopic pregnancy.


Hydrosalpinx

Hydrosalpinx occurs as an finish stage the pyosalpinx, a disorder identified by pus within the uterine tube. <6> Hydrosalpinx is the repertoire of sterile fluid within the tube secondary to occlusion of the pipe (see above).


Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy is brought about by a fertilized ovum implanting either in ~ the uterine tube or everywhere other than the endometrial cavity. In the circumstance of a tubal ectopic pregnancy, the lamina propria reacts choose the endometrium and forms countless decidual cells. <6, 7>


Because the lumen of the uterine tube is small, it cannot contain a growing pregnancy. Once the embryo or fetus becomes large enough, it have the right to rupture with the wall of the uterine tube, ending up being a medical emergency. Immediate surgical treatment is necessary in this situation. If only one of the uterine tube is removed, it is still possible for pregnant to happen on the opposite side.


If the ectopic pregnancy is detect on ultrasonography before it becomes also advanced, medical treatment v methotrexate may be supplied in some cases.

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Note the photo below.


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Sites and frequencies the ectopic pregnancy. By Donna M. Peretin, RN. (A) Ampullary, 80%; (B) Isthmic, 12%; (C) Fimbrial, 5%; (D) Cornual/Interstitial, 2%; (E) Abdominal, 1.4%; (F) Ovarian, 0.2%; (G) Cervical, 0.2%.