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Although Mali is one of the largest nations in Africa, it has a fairly small population, i m sorry is mostly centred follow me the Niger River. The Bambara (Bamana) ethnic group and language predominate, through several other groups—including the Fulani (Fulbe), Dogon, and also Tuareg—also present in the population. Farming is the dominant economic ar in the country, v cotton production, cattle and also camel herding, and also fishing among the significant activities.


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The area that is currently Mali was once component of the three great precolonial Sudanic empires: Ghana, Mali, and also Songhai. The fabled however now faded trading and learning centre of Timbuktu is located in Mali ~ above the upper Niger River. Because that centuries, caravans overcome the Sahara desert from phibìc Africa if others came from the forest regions come the south, meeting at the crossroads the Timbuktu. Other remarkable towns encompass Djenné, provided for its renowned mosque and also other examples of Sudanese architecture, and also Mopti, a bustling sector centre. The Dogon region, centred top top the Bandiagara escarpment in the country’s main area, is critical tourist destination because of its distinct cliffside villages and diverse artistic life. The national capital, Bamako, is located on the Niger River and is a rapidly growing city since of increased migration indigenous the depression rural areas.


Bamako
Bamako, Mali.
Arensond

Land

Mali is bounded top top the north by Algeria, on the east by Niger and Burkina Faso, top top the southern by Côte d’Ivoire and also Guinea, and on the west by Senegal and also Mauritania.


Physical features of MaliEncyclopædia rebab.net, Inc.

Relief

Mali’s see is mainly flat and also monotonous. Two straightforward relief attributes can it is in distinguished: plateaus and plains, which room crossed by 2 of Africa’s major river systems, the Niger and the Sénégal. The highland areas are localized and also discontinuous.

The plateaus that the south and southwest (extensions that the Fouta Djallon highlands that Guinea and also the Guinea Highlands the Guinea and also Côte d’Ivoire) lie between about 1,000 and 1,600 feet (300 and also 500 metres) above sea level but acquire heights draw close 2,000 feet (600 metres) in the Mandingue Plateau close to Bamako and an ext than 2,100 feet (640 metres) near Satadougou.

The plateaus of the southeast and east, additionally extensions of the Guinea Highlands, space a collection of small, broken hills. Elevations in the southeast variety between virtually 1,000 feet (300 metres) approximately Sikasso and also 1,740 feet (530 metres) at mount Mina. East of the Niger flow the Dogon Plateau descends tenderness westward to the river valley yet ends in abrupt cliffs ~ above the southeast. These cliffs with an elevation approaching 3,300 feet (1,000 metres) in ~ Bandiagara. Northwest the the an ar is the country’s highest possible point, mount Hombori Tondo, i m sorry rises come a height of 3,789 feet (1,155 metres).

Northern and central Mali are made up of the plains of the Niger river basin and also of the Sahara. The only significant relief feature in the north is the Iforas Massif. An extension of the like the mountain Hoggar region of the Sahara, this heavily eroded sandstone plateau rises to elevations of much more than 2,000 feet.

Drainage and soils

With the exemption of some intermittent streams in the northeast, Mali’s drainage system is composed entirely that the Sénégal and Niger rivers and their tributaries. The Sénégal device flows in a northwesterly direction throughout western Mali for around 420 mile (670 km) ~ above its food to the Atlantic Ocean. One of its main headstreams, the Bakoye River, rises in the Fouta Djallon, when another, the Bafing River, rises farther come the east; they sign up with at Bafoulabé to kind the Sénégal. The river continues flowing northwest and also then west roughly the Mandingue Plateau, damaged along the way by drops at Gouina and also Félou, before exiting Mali.


The Niger river flows with Mali for slightly an ext than 1,000 miles (1,600 km), around two-fifths of the river’s complete length. The rises in the Fouta Djallon and is of far-reaching size by the time it enters the country near Kangaba. It operation to the northeast throughout the Mandingue Plateau, its course interrupted by falls and also a dam in ~ Sotuba. Getting to Koulikoro, that spreads the end in a vast valley and flows majestically to its confluence with the Bani flow at Mopti. The Niger then forms an internal delta, since the soil is flat and the river’s gradient virtually nonexistent. The river division down right into a network that branches and also lakes as it continues northward and, in ~ Kabara, eastward. At Bourem the Niger provides a good turn to the southeast, well-known as the Niger Bend, and flows previous Gao and also Ansongo to the Niger border in ~ Labbezanga.


The soils outside the Niger sink in Mali space poor. In the south, ferruginous (iron-bearing) soils are shallow and type a hard, red crust since of extreme evaporation. The desert an ar is written of sand, rock, and also gravel.

Climate

Mali lies within the intertropical zone and has a hot, dry climate, v the sun near its zenith throughout most of the year. In general, there are two distinctive seasons, dry and also wet. The dry season, i m sorry lasts indigenous November come June, is marked by low humidity and high temperatures and also is affected by the alize and harmattan winds. The alize blows indigenous the northeast native November come January and also causes a reasonably cool spell, through temperatures averaging 77 °F (25 °C). Native March come June the harmattan, a dry, warm wind that blows from the east out of the Sahara, sweeps the soil into dusty whirlwinds and also is add by daytime temperature of around 104 to 113 °F (40 to 45 °C).

During the merganser season, native June come October, the monsoon wind blows from the southwest. Came before by large black clouds, the hefty rainstorms often incorporate gusty winds and much lightning and thunder. Temperatures room somewhat lower in August, when many of the rainfall occurs.

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The country can be separated into 3 climatic zones—the Sudanic, the Sahelian, and also the desert zones. Sudanic climate wake up in about one-third that the country, native the southerly border come latitude 15° N. It is defined by an yearly rainfall that 20 come 55 inch (510 come 1,400 mm) and average temperatures of 75 come 86 °F (24 to 30 °C). The Sahel, or the area bordering the Sahara, receives in between 8 and 20 inches (200 and also 510 mm) that rain per year and has typical temperatures in between 73 and also 97 °F (23 and 36 °C). In the desert (Sahara), temperatures throughout the day variety from 117 to almost 140 °F (47 come 60 °C), while at night the temperature drops to 39 to 41 °F (4 to 5 °C).