Physical nature of Air

Hot air expands, and also rises; cooled air contracts – it s okay denser – and also sinks; and the capability of the air to host water relies on its temperature. A offered volume the air at 20°C (68°F) deserve to hold double the quantity of water vapor than at 10°C (50°F). The partnership of how much water a given mass the air actually holds compared to the lot it deserve to hold is its family member humidity.

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When waiting holds as lot water vapor as it can for a offered temperature (100% family member humidity), that is said to be saturated. If saturation air is warmed, it deserve to hold much more water (relative humidity drops), which is why warm air is supplied to dried objects--it absorbs moisture. On the various other hand, cooling saturation air (said to be at its dew point) pressures water out (condensation). This is why a container that a cold beverage sweats: the cools the air beside it and moisture indigenous the air condenses on the exterior of the can.

Air warmed by s currents choose up a the majority of moisture. Together the heated waiting rises, the expands, which is measured at the surface ar as low air pressure. Expanding air cools, which forces it to lose its moisture together rain or snow. The opposite is true for sinking air. Together air compresses and warms. In a zone the high pressure prefer this, moisture is took in by the air from its surroundings.


This picture represents the complete precipitable water vapor for might 2009 as observed by's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ~ above NASA's Aqua satellite. This picture represents the complete precipitable water vapor for might 2009 together observed through the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) ~ above NASA's Aqua satellite. It mirrors the full amount that water vapor existing in the atmospheric column above each allude of Earth's surface. If all the water vapor in the tower were required to fall as rain, the depth of the resulting puddle on the surface at that allude is same to the value shown on the map. Fifty millimeters is about 2 inches.

Physical nature of Water

Water is an enormously effective heat-sink. Solar heat soaked up by body of water during the day, or in the summer, is released at night, or in winter. Web page on archipelago or coasts benefit from the moderating effect of the ocean and have "maritime" climates (like mountain Francisco). Sites far from the coast lack this temperature buffering and also have excessive "continental" climates (like Wichita).

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Like the heated wait in a hot-air balloon, cook water expands. Solar heat soaked up at the equator causes water to expand. Such heated water raises the normal level the the sea surface, and also such changed ocean topography deserve to be measured. The warm in the water is brought to higher latitudes by ocean currents whereby it is released into the atmosphere. Water chill by colder temperatures in ~ high latitudes contract (thus it s okay denser), sinks, (lowers the local topography) and returns come the equator via the an international ocean water circulation conveyor belt to finish the cycle.