Main difference – Anaphase 1 vs 2
Anaphase 1 and anaphase 2 room two phases in the meiotic department of cell which to produce gametes during the sexual reproduction. Meiosis is divided into two major phases well-known as meiosis 1 and also meiosis 2. Meiosis 1 is adhered to by meiosis 2. Anaphase 1 is a sub phase in meiosis 1 and also anaphase 2 is a sub phase that meiosis 2. Throughout meiotic division, haploid gametes are developed from diploid germ cells. The main difference in between anaphase 1 and also 2 is the homologous chromosomes space separated during anaphase 1 vice versa, sister chromatids are separated during anaphase 2.
This short article looks at,
1. What is Anaphase 1 – Process, Function, Features 2. What is Anaphase 2 – Process, Function, Features 3. What is the difference between Anaphase 1 and 2
What is Anaphase 1
Anaphase 1, i m sorry takes location at the meiosis 1, is the phase whereby homologous chromosomes space separated step. The metaphase 1 is complied with by the anaphase 1. Throughout metaphase 1, homologous chromosome pairs room arranged in the metaphase plate and both centromeres room attached to a single kinetochore microtubule. The spindle microtubules are contracted, resulting in a consistent counterbalancing forces on the homologous chromosome pairs. The cohesin protein complexes which tie the two homologous chromosomes together are broken down, separating the 2 chromosomes indigenous the homologue because of the pressure generated through the kinetochore microtubules. ~ the appropriate bi-orientation that chromosomes, the cell is qualified of proceeding into anaphase 1.
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During anaphase 1, homologous chromosomes are pulled in the direction of the the opposite poles through the shortening of kinetochore microtubules. The non-kinetochore microtubules are lengthened in stimulate to press the chromosomes additional apart. Homologous chromosomes are separated from the cohesin in ~ the arms of the chromosomes. Every separated bivalent chromosome starts moving towards opposing poles because of the tension created by the microtubules. Anaphase 1 is complied with by telophase 1 where the bivalent chromosomes come at the contrary poles. The first department of the cytoplasm is initiated at the anaphase 1.
Figure 1: Phases of Mitosis
What is Anaphase 2
Anaphase 2, i beg your pardon takes ar at the meiosis 2, is the action where sisters chromatids are separated. Metaphase 2 is adhered to by anaphase 2. During metaphase 2, 2 kinetochore microtubules, every from two opposite poles, room attached come the exact same centromere that the individual chromosomes. These bivalent separation, personal, instance chromosomes room aligned in ~ a new equatorial metaphase plate i beg your pardon is rotated by 90º family member to the anaphase 1. The proper arrangement the the separation, personal, instance chromosomes at the equatorial plate, binding through the kinetochore microtubules allows the cabinet to proceeds into the anaphase 2. During anaphase 2, the centromeric cohesion protein complexes are cleaved because of the contacting stress of the kinetochore microtubules top top the centromere that the every individual chromosome. Thus, the bivalent chromosomes room separated right into two sisters chromatids. Each sister chromatid is now recognized as a daughter chromosome. Further contraction the the kinetochore microtubules pulls each daughter chromosome in the direction of the the contrary poles. Anaphase 2 is complied with by the telophase 2 where the development of the haploid nuclei in ~ the the opposite poles is take away place.
Figure 2: Anaphase 2
Difference in between Anaphase 1 and 2
Anaphase 1: Anaphase 1 bring away place during meiosis 1.
Anaphase 2: Anaphase 2 takes place throughout meiosis 2.
Haploid vs Diploid
Anaphase 1: Anaphase 1 occurs in diploid cells.
Anaphase 2: Anaphase 2 occurs in haploid cells.
Anaphase 1: two spindle fibers room attached come the centromere of the each chromosome in the homologous pair.
Anaphase 2: two spindle fibers are attached come the very same centromere of a solitary chromosome.
Separation during the Phases
Anaphase 1: Homologous chromosomes room separated throughout anaphase 1.
Anaphase 2: sister chromatids space separated throughout anaphase 2.
Splitting that the Centromere
Anaphase 1: The centromeres of each chromosome in the homologous pair stay untouched.
Anaphase 2: two sister chromatids room separated by dividing the centromere.
Anaphase 1: Anaphase 1 is not comparable to the anaphase of the mitosis.
Anaphase 2: Anaphase 2 is comparable to the anaphase that the mitosis.
Anaphase 1: throughout anaphase 1, homologous chromosomes space arranged in the cabinet equator.
Anaphase 2: during anaphase 2, separation, personal, instance chromosomes space arranged in a aircraft which is rotated through 90º loved one to the anaphase 1.
Separation of the Cohesin Protein Complex
Anaphase 1: The cohesin proteins at the chromosomal arms are cleaved during the anaphase 1.
Anaphase 2: The cohesin protein complexes at the centromere are cleaved during the anaphase 2.
Anaphase 1: Chromosomes are existing at the the opposite poles in ~ the finish of the anaphase 1.
Anaphase 2: sister chromatids are current at the the contrary poles in ~ the finish of the anaphase 2.
Anaphase 1 and 2 space two phases the take ar in meiosis 1 and also meiosis 2 stages respectively. Anaphase 1 takes location in 4n cells whereas anaphase 2 takes place in 2n cells. Anaphase 1 produces a 2n cabinet from the 4n cell. Anaphase 2 to produce an n cell from a 2n cell. Throughout anaphase 1, a solitary kinetochore-microtubule is attached to every of the chromosomes in the homologous chromosome pair. During anaphase 2, 2 kinetochore microtubules, each from one pole that the two opposite poles, affix to the very same centromere the the bivalent chromosome. Contraction of the kinetochore microtubules allows the separation of one of two people homologous chromosome pair or the individual chromosome right into chromosomes and sister chromatids respectively. Therefore, the key difference between anaphase 1 and also 2 is your separations in ~ the equatorial plate.
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Reference:1.”Meiosis”. En.wikipedia.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 9 Mar. 2017.2.”Pearson – The biological Place”. Phschool.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 9 Mar. 2017.3.”Pearson – The biological Place”. Phschool.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 9 Mar. 2017.
Image Courtesy:1. “Meiosis Stages”By Ali Zifan – very own work; Used details from Campbell biology (10th Edition) by: jane B. Reece & Steven A. Wasserman (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia2. “Anaphase 2″By Bharghavi Ravi Reddy – Own occupational (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia