At convergent boundaries, tectonic key collide v each other. The occasions that happen at these borders are attached to the species of plates — oceanic or continental — that are interacting.

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Subduction Zones and also Volcanoes

At part convergent boundaries, an oceanic key collides v a continent plate. Oceanic crust often tends to be denser and thinner 보다 continental crust, for this reason the denser oceanic crust gets bent and pulled under, or subducted, in ~ the lighter and also thicker continental crust. This develops what is called a subduction zone. As the oceanic late sinks, a deep oceanic trench, or valley, is developed at the edge of the continent. The crust continues to be required deeper into the earth, wherein high heat and also pressure cause trapped water and also other gasses come be exit from it. This, in turn, makes the basic of the crust melt, developing magma

The magma formed at a subduction region rises up toward the earth"s surface and builds up in magma chambers, whereby it feeds and also creates volcanoes on the overriding plate. When this magma find its method to the surface through a vent in the crust, the volcano erupts, expelling lava and also ash. An example of this is the band of energetic volcanoes that encircle the Pacific Ocean, frequently referred to as the Ring of Fire.

Illustration portraying how island arcs room formed.

A subduction zone is additionally generated once two oceanic plates collide — the older plate is compelled under the younger one — and it leads to the development of chain of volcano islands well-known as island arcs. Examples encompass the Mariana archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean and the Aleutian Islands, turn off the coastline of Alaska.

Since the collision and also subduction of bowl is no a smooth process, large, an effective earthquakes are another phenomenon that an outcome from this type of interaction. Earthquakes produced in a subduction ar can also give increase to tsunamis. A tsunami is a substantial ocean wave resulted in by a sudden shift on the s floor, such as an undersea earthquake. If the wave reaches land, the can reason incredible destruction, favor the asian Tsunami, i beg your pardon killed an ext than 200,000 civilization in 11 countries throughout the Indian Ocean region in December 2004.

Collision Zones and Mountains

What happens once two continent plates collide? since the rock comprising continental bowl is generally lighter and less thick than oceanic rock, that is too light to obtain pulled under the earth and turned right into magma. Instead, a collision between two continental plates crunches and folds the absent at the boundary, lifting the up and leading to the development of mountains and mountain ranges.

An instance of this mountain-building process is the Himalayan range in southerly Asia. Comprise the greatest mountain peaks in the world and also traversing the modern-day countries of India, Pakistan, China (Tibet), Bhutan, and also Nepal, the Himalayas were developed by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian Plates. This procedure began ~ the breakup the Pangaea, when India ended up being an island continent and began travel northward toward Asia. The island the India slammed into Asia about 40 to 50 million years earlier near modern-day Tibet, crushing and folding the key to type the Himalayan mountain range. Its best known peaks, mountain Everest and K2, are among several that measure over 8,000 meters (26,000 feet) high at your summits. Due to the fact that the Indian plate is continuing in that is northward movement right into Asia, the Himalayas proceed to grow higher each year by tiny amounts (5 come 20 mm or 1 customs per year).

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Image credits: Animations and also illustration that oceanic-oceanic key collision adjusted from drawings by mrs Russell indigenous Jacquelyne Kious and Robert Tilling, This Dynamic Earth, USGS, pp. 37 and also 40.