Plate Tectonics and also Volcanic Activity

A volcano is a feature in Earth"s crust wbelow molten rock is squeezed out onto the Earth"s surchallenge. Along with molten rock, volcanoes additionally release gases, ash, and also solid rock.

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A volcano is a function in Earth’s crust wright here molten rock is squeezed out onto the Earth’s surconfront. This molten rock is dubbed magma as soon as it is beneath the surconfront and lava when it erupts, or flows out, from a volcano. Alengthy via lava, volcanoes additionally release gases, ash, and solid rock.
Volcanoes come in many kind of various shapes and also sizes however are many generally cone-shaped hills or mountains. They are discovered throughout the world, creating ridges deep below the sea surface and hills that are countless meters high. About 1,900 volcanoes on Planet are considered active, meaning they present some level of occasional task and also are likely to erupt aacquire. Many others are dormant volcanoes, reflecting no present indicators of exploding but likely to end up being active at some allude in the future. Others are taken into consideration extinct.
Volcanoes are exceptionally powerful agents of readjust. Eruptions have the right to develop new landcreates, but have the right to likewise ruin every little thing in their course. About 350 million human being (or about one out of eexceptionally 20 world in the world) live within the “danger range” of an energetic volcano. Volcanologists closely monitor volcanoes so they can better predict impending eruptions and also prepare surrounding populaces for potential volcanic dangers that could endanger their safety.
Most volcanoes develop at the boundaries of Earth’s tectonic plates. These plates are huge slabs of the Earth’s crust and upper mantle, which fit together prefer pieces of a puzzle. These plates are not addressed, yet are constantly moving at an extremely slow-moving price. They move only a few centimeters per year. Sometimes, the plates collide through one an additional or move acomponent. Volcanoes are most prevalent in these geologically active borders.
The 2 forms of plate limits that are many most likely to create volcanic activity are divergent plate limits and convergent plate boundaries.
At a divergent boundary, tectonic plates relocate acomponent from one an additional. They never really sepaprice because magma consistently moves up from the mantle into this boundary, structure brand-new plate product on both sides of the plate boundary.
The Atlantic Ocean is home to a divergent plate boundary, a place referred to as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Here, the North American and also Eurasian tectonic plates are moving in oppowebsite directions. Alengthy the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, warm magma swells upward and becomes component of the North American and Eurasian plates. The upward activity and eventual cooling of this buoyant magma creates high ridges on the ocean floor. These ridges are interlinked, forming a continuous volcanic hill selection nearly 60,000 kilometers (37,000 miles)—the longest in the people.
Anvarious other divergent plate boundary is the East Pacific Rise, which separates the substantial Pacific plate from the Nazca, Cocos, and North American plates.
Vents and fractures (additionally called fissures) in these mid-ocean ridges permit magma and also gases to escape right into the sea. This submarine volcanic task accounts for around 75% of the average yearly volume of magma that reaches the Earth’s crust. Many submarine volcanoes are uncovered on ridges hundreds of meters below the ocean surchallenge.
Some ocean ridges reach the ocean surchallenge and produce landforms. The island of Iceland is a part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The diverging Eurasian and North Amerihave the right to plates resulted in the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (in 2010) and also Bardarbunga (in 2014). These eruptions were predelivered by considerable rifting and cracking on the ground surconfront, which are additionally emblematic of diverging plate motion.
Of course, divergent plate limits also exist on land. The East Afrideserve to Rift is an example of a single tectonic plate being ripped in 2. Alengthy the Horn of Africa, the African plate is tearing itself into what is sometimes dubbed the Nubian plate (to the west, including most of the present African plate) and the Somali plate (to the east, consisting of the Horn of Africa and also the western Indian Ocean). Alengthy this divergent plate boundary are volcanoes such as Mount Nyiragongo, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Mount Kilimanjaro, in Kenya.
At a convergent plate boundary, tectonic plates relocate towards one one more and also collide. Oftentimes, this collision pressures the denser plate edge to subduct, or sink beneath the plate edge that is much less thick. These subduction areas have the right to develop deep trenches. As the denser plate edge moves downward, the press and temperature neighboring it boosts, which causes alters to the plate that melt the mantle over, and also the melted rock rises with the plate, occasionally reaching its surchallenge as part of a volcano. Over numerous years, the increasing magma can produce a collection of volcanoes well-known as a volcanic arc.
The majority of volcanic arcs can be discovered in the Ring of Fire, a horseshoe-shaped string of about 425 volcanoes that edges the Pacific Ocean. If you were to drain the water out of the Pacific Ocean, you would certainly see a collection of deep canyons (trenches) running parallel to matching volcanic islands and also mountain ranges. The Aleutian Islands, extending from Alaska to Russia in the Bering Sea, for instance, run parallel to the Aleutian Trench, formed as the Pacific plate subducts under the North Amerideserve to plate. The Aleutian Islands have actually 27 of the United States’ 65 historically energetic volcanoes.
The mighty Andes Mountains of South America run parallel to the Peru-Chile Trench. These mountains are continually accumulated as the Nazca plate subducts under the South Amerihave the right to plate. The Andes Mountains incorporate the world’s highest possible energetic volcano, Nevados Ojos del Salacarry out, which rises to 6,879 meters (over 22,500 feet) along the Chile-Argentina border.
For many type of years, scientists have been trying to describe why some volcanoes exist thousands of kilometers away from tectonic plate borders.
The leading concept, framed by Canadian geophysicist J. Tuzo Wilkid in 1963, says that these volcanoes are created by exceptionally hot areas solved deep below Earth’s mantle. These hot spots are able to separately melt the tectonic plate over them, developing magma that erupts onto the peak of the plate.
In warm spots beneath the ocean, the tectonic activity creates a volcanic mound. Over millions of years, volcanic mounds have the right to grow till they reach sea level and develop a volcanic island also. The volcanic island moves as component of its tectonic plate. The hot spot stays put, yet. As the volcano moves farther from the hot spot, it goes extinct and eventually erodes earlier into the ocean. A brand-new and also active volcano creates over the hot spot, producing a constant cycle of volcanism—and also a string of volcanic islands tracing the tectonic plate’s activity over time.
For Wilkid and also many kind of scientists, the ideal example of warm spot volcanism is the Hawaiian Islands. Experts think this volcanic chain of islands has actually been forming for at leastern 70 million years over a hot spot underneath the Pacific plate. Of all the inhabited Hawaiian Islands, Kauai is situated farthest from the presumed warm spot and has the many eroded and also earliest volcanic rocks, dated at 5.5 million years. Meanwhile, on the “Big Island” of Hawaii—still fueled by the hot spot—the oldest rocks are much less than 0.7 million years old and also volcanic activity continues to produce brand-new land also.
Hot spots can likewise produce terrestrial volcanoes. The Yellowstone Supervolcano, for instance, sits over a warm spot in the middle of the North American plate, through a collection of primitive calderas extending across southern Idaho. The Yellowrock hot spot fuels the geysers, hot springs, and also various other geologic task at Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
While some data seem to prove Wilson’s hot spot theory, more current scientific research studies suggest that these warm spots might be uncovered at more shpermit depths in the Earth’s mantle and might migrate gradually over geologic time quite than remain addressed in the exact same spot.
While volcanoes come in a range of forms and also sizes, they all share a few crucial qualities. All volcanoes are connected to a reservoir of molten rock, dubbed a magma chamber, below the surconfront of the Earth. When pressure inside the chamber builds up, the buoyant magma travels out a surface vent or series of vents, with a main internal pipe or series of pipes. These eruptions, which vary in dimension, product, and also explosiveness, develop various kinds of volcanoes.
Stratovolcanoes are some of the the majority of quickly recognizable and also imposing volcanoes, with steep, conic peaks climbing as much as a number of thousand also meters above the landscape. Also known as compowebsite volcanoes, they are consisted of of layers of lava, volcanic ash, and also fragmented rocks. These layers are collected over time as the volcano erupts with a vent or group of vents at the summit’s crater.
Mount Rainier is an exceptional stratovolcano that rises 4,392 meters (14,410 feet) above sea level simply southern of Seattle, Washington. Over the previous half million years, Mount Rainier has actually developed a series of alternating lava eruptions and also debris eruptions. These eruptions have given Mount Rainier the classic layered structure and conic form of a composite volcano. The volcano’s height has actually also been carved dvery own by a series of glaciers, giving it a craggy and rugged form.
Volcan de Fuego and Acatenango are a pair of stratovolcanoes that stand also more than 3,700 meters (12,000 feet) above sea level close to Antigua, Guatemala. While the volcanoes are thought about twins because of their equivalent form and size, they are made of different kinds of lava and also have distinctive eruption backgrounds. While Acatenango erupts infrequently now, Fuego is considered to be the many energetic volcano in Central America, erupting more than 60 times because 1524.
Shield volcanoes are constructed almost exclusively of lava, which flows out in all directions throughout an eruption. These flows, made of highly liquid basalt lava, spread over good distances and also cool in thin layers. With time, the layers develop up and also develop a gently sloping dome that looks prefer a warrior’s shield. While they are not as eye-catching as their steep stratovolcano cousins, shield volcanoes are regularly a lot bigger in volume because of their broad, expansive framework.
Shield volcanoes comprise the totality of the Hawaiian Islands. The Kilauea and also Mauna Loa shield volcanoes, located on the “Big Island” of Hawaii, rise from the sea floor even more than 4,500 meters (15,000 feet) below sea level. The summit of Mauna Loa stands at 4,168 meters (13,677 feet) over sea level and also even more than 8,500 meters (28,000 feet) above the ocean floor, making it the world’s biggest active volcano—and also, by some accounts, the world’s tallest hill. The smaller volcano, Kilauea, has actually been erupting repetitively considering that 1983, making it among the world’s the majority of active volcanoes.
The Galapagos Islands are additionally consisted of of a collection of shield volcanoes. Isabela and Fernandina islands have flast tops than other shield volcanoes because lava erupts from fissures approximately their tops and also along ridges at their bases. As a result, the volcanoes rise at the height and also flourish exterior at the bottom—but not in the middle, making them look choose an “inverted soup bowl.”
Pyroclastic cones are the the majority of prolific type of volcano on Planet. They can construct as component of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, or separately. Also recognized as cinder cones, they develop after violent eruptions blow lava right into the air. In the atmosphere, the lava pieces solidify and also loss as “cinders” approximately a singular vent. Often developed from a solitary eruption or short series of eruptions, pyroclastic cones only stand at heights of tens of meters to numerous meters.
Parícutin, Mexico, is a distinct pyroclastic cone. It was the initially volcano to be stupassed away for its whole life cycle. Emerging from a cornfield in 1943, Parícutin’s explosive eruptions caused it to reach 80% of its elevation of 424 meters (1,391 feet) during its first year of activity. In that time, lava and ash buried the adjacent town of San Juan. Over the following eight years, Parícutin developed the remainder of its cone—and also then went quiet. Geologists learned a good deal about the development of volcanoes in Parícutin’s short, nine-year life.
Lava domes are choose shield volcanoes in that they are constructed completely of lava. This lava, yet, is also thick and also sticky to relocate good distances. It simply piles up around the volcano vent. Lava domes are frequently found on the summit or flanks of a volcano, however they have the right to additionally develop independently. Like pyroclastic cones, they only reach a couple of hundred meters, as they are formed during singular eruptions or slow-moving lava releases.
One of the most iconic lava domes arisen after the disastrous 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée on the island of Martinique. For almost a year, a lava dome grew out of a summit crater produced from the eruption, getting to a height of more than 300 meters (1,000 feet). Knvery own as the Tower of Pelée, the obelisk-shaped structure was twice the elevation of the Washington Monument. It eventually fell down right into a pile of rubble after 11 months of development.
Some volcanoes suffer such huge, explosive eruptions that they release a lot of of the material in their magma chamber. This causes the land about the erupting vent or vents to collapse inwardly, creating circular depressions called caldages. Depfinishing on their intensity and duration, volcanic eruptions deserve to create calderas as a lot as 100 kilometers wide.
Crater Lake, Oregon, is in a caldera around 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide. Crater Lake’s caldera resulted from an eruption that developed even more than 7,000 years earlier. The volcano"s magma chamber fell down, then filled with water from rain and also scurrently, developing the lake. Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States.
Deception Island also, situated off the shore of Antarctica, knowledgeable a violent eruption around 10,000 years back. The volcano summit broke down, forming a caldera 7 kilometers (4.4 miles) wide and also flooded via seawater. The caldera provides Deception Island its horseshoe form, which opens to the sea via a narrowhead channel. Deception Island’s distinct geologic structure renders it one of the only locations in the civilization wright here ocean vessels deserve to sail directly into an energetic volcano.
Much choose caldages, craters are depressions left after a volcano experiences a big eruption. While calderas are formed by the collapse of material inside a volcano, craters are created as materials explode out from a volcano. Craters are generally a lot smaller than caldperiods, just extending to a maximum of about one kilometer (.62 mile) in diameter.
Many kind of volcanoes have multiple craters led to by various eruptions. The Maly Semiachik volcano, situated on the Kamchatka Peninsula in far eastern Russia, has actually 6 craters at its summit. The youngest of these craters, Troitsky, filled in with water and snowmelt, developing a lake 140 meters (459 feet) deep. The lake is very acidic, as volcanic gases continue to be released right into the water from the energetic volcano below.
Lava lakes are also found in volcanic craters. Erta Ale, a volcano in Ethiopia, has actually a lava lake in its summit crater. Lava lakes are where magma has actually bubbled as much as the surface and also pooled in a crater. Volcanologists have the right to fly over Erta Ale’s summit crater to watch just how the lava lake is behaving actually and predict future actions.
Volcanic eruptions are as varied as volcanoes themselves—which is to say, incredibly diverse! Some of the ways volcanologists have classified these eruptions are based on the heights they reach, the forms of materials they eject, and also the explosiveness of these ejections.
Hawaiian eruptions are the calmest eruption kind. They are characterized by steady lava eruptions known as lava fountains or fire fountains. Lava fountains are able to reach heights of as much as 2 kilometers (1.2 miles). The highly fluid lava associated with Hawaiian eruptions flows quickly amethod from the volcano summit, frequently developing fiery rivers and lakes of lava within depressions on the bordering landscape.
These eruptions are called after the Hawaiian Islands, wbelow they a lot of regularly happen. Kilauea, which has actually been erupting repetitively since 1983, has created lava flows extending more than 100 square kilometers (37 square miles) on the island of Hawaii. These flows repetitively destroy dwellings and neighborhoods in their path, while likewise including brand-new coast to the island also.
Strombolian eruptions are characterized by short-lived outbursts of lava fairly than stable fountaining. The lava is thicker and has a higher gas content than that of Hawaiian eruptions. Large gas bubbles increase from the magma chamber, pushing the pasty lava upward till the bubbles explode at the summit vent. These explosions can reach heights up to 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) although many don’t go greater than a few hundred meters right into the air.
Strombolian eruptions are called after the Mediterranean island of Stromboli, Italy. Considered by many kind of to be the a lot of active volcano on Earth, Stromboli has been erupting nearly repetitively for 2,000 years. The island’s eruptions are almost always Strombolian in nature: Small gas explosions eject blobs of lava right into the air a couple of times per hour.
Vulcanian eruptions are short-lived but a lot more explosive than Strombolian eruptions. Very thick lava causes gas pressure to develop up in the magma chamber. When this press is finally released it creates canon-prefer explosions that have the right to take a trip faster than 350 meters per second (800 miles per hour). Lava, rock, and also ash are driven as much as 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) in the air, although many eruption columns are in between 5 and also 10 kilometers high. These plumes of material have the capability to drift modeprice ranges away from the eruption website.
The 2013 vulcanian eruption of Sakurajima, on the island of Kyushu, Japan, covered the nearby city of Kagoshima in a thick coat of ash.
Reaching as high as 50 kilometers (35 miles) in the environment, Plinian eruptions are the biggest of all eruption forms. Much choose vulcanian eruptions, they eject products at speeds of numerous meters per second. Plinian eruptions, however, are more sustained than the coughing fits of vulcanian eruptions. These continual eruptions outcome from the volcano’s magma and also flourishing gas bubbles rising at a comparable velocity.
Plinian eruptions are the many terrible form of eruption. They release a deadly mixture of lava, ash, and also volcanic rocks such as scoria and pumice, which can fall kilometers amethod from the eruption site. They are additionally characterized by pyroclastic flow, a liquid mixture of fragmentized products and also very warm, toxic gases.
In 79 CE, a series of Plinian eruptions from Mount Vesuvius buried the adjacent Roman cities of Pompeii and also Herculaneum (in what is now Italy). The cities and their 13,000 residents were hidden in volcanic ash and rock. Rainautumn combined via the ash and developed a concrete-like substance that kept the city for hundreds of years.
Surtseyan eruptions happen wright here magma or lava interacts through water, many often as soon as an undersea volcano reaches the sea surface. Anvarious other term for this type of interaction is a phreatomagmatic eruption. When heated promptly by lava, water flashes to vapor and also expands violently, producing the many explosive of all eruption forms. This aggressive interaction in between water and also heat is able to fragment lava into very fine grains of ash that deserve to reach heights of 20 kilometers (12.4 miles).
Tonga’s islands of Hunga Tonga and also Hunga Ha"apai are actually the tops of a solitary, big underwater volcano. In 2009, the volcano erupted for a number of days, leading to vapor and also ash to explode from the water to altitudes of 5 kilometers (3.1 miles). While the eruptions killed all signs of wildlife on and also approximately the islands, it also added thousands of square meters of land to Hunga Ha’apai.
Volcanoes are some of Earth’s most potent natural perils and also agents of adjust. They release massive quantities of power and also material, engaging herbal procedures that can modify landscapes at a neighborhood, regional, and also international scale.
Many type of volcanic materials and also processes pose a danger to humale, pet, and various other eco-friendly areas.
Volcanoes on a regular basis release volcanic gases that can be dangerous at concentrated levels. Carbon dioxide and fluorine can collect in soil or volcanic ash, causing chop faitempt, pet fatality and also deformity, and huma disease.
Volcanic eruptions have the right to additionally release huge quantities of sulfur dioxide, which rises right into the stratospright here. Tright here, it shows incoming solar radiation while absorbing outgoing land also radiation, causing a cooling of the Earth’s temperature.
In extreme cases, these “volcanic winters” can cause crop failures and also substantially affect weather. The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora, Indonesia, cooled the average global temperature by as much as 3° Celsius (5.4° Fahrenheit), resulting in the “year without a summer.”
The substantial energy of volcanic eruptions can cause big landslides that relocate at speeds of more than 100 kilometers per hour (60 miles per hour). Mount St. Helens, Washington, is a stratovolcano that had an explosive Plinian eruption in 1980. The eruption produced the largest landslide in tape-recorded history, spanning a 36-kilometer (14-mile) area of land via ash and also rocks. Reaching speeds of 50 to 80 meters (165 to 260 feet) per second, the landslide had sufficient power to surge over a ridge 400 meters (1,312 feet) high.
Landslides have the right to mix through surrounding rivers, ice, scurrently, or rain to create watery mixtures dubbed lahars. This mixture of water, rock, and also debris creates a sludge that have the right to obliteprice nearly anypoint in its route. The 1985 eruption of Nevaexecute del Ruiz, Colombia, led to small lahars of rock, ash, and melted snow to flow dvery own into the neighboring river valleys. The lahars got momentum and also size as they traveled the riverbeds, ultimately damaging more than 5,000 residences and also killing even more than 23,000 civilization.
Explosive eruptions sometimes create pyroclastic flows, a mixture of warm rock fragments and also toxic gases that relocate practically prefer a liquid out and also amethod from the volcano. Reaching speeds higher than 80 kilometers per hour (50 miles per hour) and temperatures between 200-700° Celsius (392-1292° Fahrenheit), pyroclastic flows knock down, shatter, bury, or burn anything in their route.
Pyroclastic flows are responsible for the haunting numbers from Pompeii and also Herculaneum, Italy. While many scientists assumed occupants of Pompeii suffocated to death from volcanic gases released during Mount Vesuvius’ eruption in 79 CE, new research studies imply that they actually died from too much heat developed by the volcano’s pyroclastic circulation.
Volcanologist Giuseppe Mastrolorenzo and the Italian National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology freshly found that the pyroclastic flow that reached Pompeii produced temperatures of approximately 300° Celsius (570° Fahrenheit). These too much temperatures are able to kill human being in a portion of a 2nd, resulting in them to spasm in contorted postures choose those found amongst the plaster casts of Vesuvius’ victims.
Huge plumes of volcanic ash have the right to spcheck out over big locations of the sky, turning daylight into finish darkness and inhibiting air traffic. (Throughout the eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull in 2011, flights to and also from north Europe were suspfinished for even more than a week.) Volcanic ash conducts electricity when wet and have the right to contain concentrated levels of toxic products, posing risks to human beings that come in close call through it on land also.
The 1994 double eruption of Vulhave the right to and also Tavurvur in Papua New Guinea spanned the surrounding city of Rabaul in a layer of ash up to 75 centimeters (about 2 feet) deep. Rains turned the ash into a cement-like substance that was heavy sufficient to collapse 80% of the structures in the city.
Volcanic risks have the right to be exceptionally dangerous to human life. In the USA alone, 54 volcanoes are a very high or high danger to public security. By carefully monitoring volcanic activity, volcanologists can warn civilization of impfinishing eruptions. While these warnings are not specific predictions, they do administer communities through the valuable time they need to defend themselves versus volcanic risks and also ensure their safety and security.
Volcanologists predict volcanic activity by taking real-time dimensions and comparing them against what occurred in the past. They usage a range of instruments and also modern technologies to monitor temperatures, gas emissions, water levels, ground activities, and changes in the landscape. These measurements paint a clear portrait of a volcano’s existing state, which volcanologists then interpret versus historic data. Volcanologists worry eruption warnings once these dimensions stray far from the norm or mirror those that predelivered a historical eruption.
Different nations use various systems to concern eruption warnings to the public. All of these systems categorize their advises based on the probcapacity and severity of an impfinishing eruption. Common volcanic actions is often stood for by the number 1 or the shade green, while an unavoidable and possibly terrible eruption is generally stood for by the number 4 or the color red.
A number of global establishments lead the means in volcanic monitoring and also research study, giving invaluable indevelopment to researchers, volcanologists, and the public aprefer. The Smithsonian Institution’s Global Volcanism Program records current task for all the volcanoes on the world via publicly available data, reports, and also imeras. The regime also keeps the world’s just archive of volcanic activity from the last 10,000 years.
As part of the UN International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, the Internationwide Association of Volcanology and Chemisattempt of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) developed a list of 16 "Decade Volcanoes" to research because of the high risk they pose to public safety. Mount Nyiragongo in Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, is dangerously cshed to the city of Goma. Its 2002 eruption killed 50 civilization and also forced around 450,000 people to evacuate their areas. The Santa María Volcano, which sits appropriate above the city of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, has been consistently erupting because 2003. The Decade Volcanoes regime has carried together geologists, volcanologists, and also government officials to closely examine these volcanoes and also create risk-mitigation plans for potential eruptions.

Volcanoes are such powerful forces of nature that many type of cultures in volcanically active regions have advanced mythologies sustaining gods and goddesses of volcanoes.
Vulhave the right to (for whom volcanoes are named) is a Roman god.Hephaestus is a Greek god from whom Vuldeserve to occurred.Pele is a Hawaiian goddess.Ruaumoko is a Maori god.Xiahtecuhtli is an Aztec god.Ayanju is a Yoruba orisha, or deity.Kagu-Tsuchi is a Japanese kami, or soul.
One of the most mysterious forms of volcanic eruptions is a subglacial eruption, which takes location on ice-spanned volcanoes. Subglacial eruptions often result in flooding, as glaciers are heated by hot magma and volcanic gas. This sudden, violent flooding of glacial meltwater is dubbed a jökulhlaup.

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The “Decade Volcanoes” form a list of what can be considered the most hazardous volcanoes on the planet. The 16 decade volcanoes are:
Avachinsky-Koryakskies, RussiaColima, MexicoEtna, ItalyGaleras, ColombiaMauna Loa, USAMerapi, IndonesiaNyiragongo, Dem. Rep. of the CongoRainier, USASakurajima, JapanSanta Maria/Santiaguito, GuatemalaSantorini, GreeceTaal, PhilippinesTeide, Spain (Canary Islands)Ulawun, Papau New GuineaUnzen, JapanVesuvius, Italy
The largest volcano recognized to humanity is not actually on Earth! Olympus Mons is a dormant shield volcano on Mars that is taller than 3 Mount Everests and also is about as wide as the whole Hawaiian Islands chain.
The a lot of volcanically active body in our solar mechanism is not Earth at all. It’s Jupiter’s moon Io. At any kind of one time, Io has actually 400 energetic volcanoes, which deserve to shoot plumes as much as 500 kilometers (300 miles) into external space! In 2001, a volcano in Io’s Surt region produced the largest eruption ever taped, extending 1,900 square kilometers (1,180 square miles), a room larger than the city of Los Angeles.