AP Biology aid » Biochemical principles » Water and also Carbon » Understanding essential Properties that Carbon
Explanation:

Carbon is phenomenally essential to life together we recognize it. The ability to kind bonds with up to four different atoms gives carbon an remarkable chemical diversity, and permits for carbon come make long chains and aromatic compounds. The capability to make lengthy chains and also aromatic compounds accounts for the development of main point acids, proteins, and lipids (macromolecules that are absolutely crucial to life). Binding properties of carbon additionally relate to the structure and orientation of organic compounds, which are important aspects of organic chemistry.

You are watching: What ability allows carbon atoms to form a large number of molecules


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Example question #1 : Understanding essential Properties the Carbon


How countless bonds deserve to a carbon atom make?


Possible Answers:

One


Two 


Three


Five


Four


Correct answer:

Four


Explanation:

In its floor state carbon has four valence electrons, two its full s subshell and two in a partly filled p subshell. Normally, this would suggest that carbon creates two bonds, because only two of the electrons are in orbitals that room not already paired. Carbon, however, is may be to kind hybrid orbitals by combine the three p orbitals and one s orbit to form four the same sp3 orbitals, each containing one electron. This method that carbon can type four bonds, allowing it to accomplish a steady octet.

For biology, the necessary note is that carbon can make 4 bonds. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon and also how this bonds function to develop organic and biological materials.


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Example concern #3 : Understanding essential Properties that Carbon


What building of carbon many contributes come its capability to form such a diverse range of molecules?


Possible Answers:

It is magnetic


It has 4 valance electrons


It has actually a little atomic mass


It tends to type ionic bond in essential molecules


It can kind a quadruple bond


Correct answer:

It has 4 valance electrons


Explanation:

Carbon has 4 valance electrons, allowing it to type a wide variety of binding with various other atoms.

When carbon bonds to 4 separate substituents, it forms a tetrahedral structure. Because of its capability to hybridize orbitals, carbon can also bond to 3 substituents by developing a dual bond, or to 2 substituents via two twin bonds or the combination of a single bond and a triple bond. This variability in molecule bonding and shape enables carbon to exist in countless compounds, exhibiting a number of different properties and functions.

Carbon is incapable of creating a quadruple bond, and it is not magnetic. Though carbon has a reasonably low atomic mass, one would expect hydrogen to be the many relevant facet if short mass was the many pertinent home of carbon. Carbon can kind ionic binding (generally through metals), but is most typically found in necessary molecules where it forms covalent bonds.

See more: 2 Liters Equals How Many Ounces In 2 Liters, Liters To Us Fluid Ounces


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Example question #4 : Understanding essential Properties the Carbon


Which statement best describes why life on earth is carbon based? 


Possible Answers:

The relative proportion of other elements to carbon


The electronegativity the carbon


Its bonding versatility


Abundance the carbon


The relationship between carbon and water


Correct answer:

Its bonding versatility


Explanation:

Life is "carbon-based" or predominantly carbon due to the fact that it can form stable bonds through itself, but likewise with a range of other varieties of elements. Electronegativity increases from left to appropriate on the routine table, but additionally from bottom to top. When carbon is reasonably high and right on the periodic chart, there are still facets like oxygen or fluorine (the many electronegative) that have actually a an excellent pull because that electrons. When carbon provides up a lot of the universe, that pales in comparison to hydrogen which is the most common element (three fourths that the mass of our universe). Therefore ratios do not matter. The polar and nonpolar nature of molecules are important because that the functions of life (like membranes), but were it not for the bonding of carbon to itself, the nonpolar molecules would not have the ability to form. Thus, that bonding adaptability is the key reason because that life being carbon based.


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Example concern #31 : Ap biological


The chemistry properties of which of the following elements are most comparable to carbon?


Possible Answers:

Iron


Oxygen


Nitrogen


Silicon


Zinc


Correct answer:

Silicon


Explanation:

The chemical properties the an element are, in a large part, identified by the variety of bonds that aspect can form with other elements. Silicon, prefer carbon, can form four bonds with various other elements, and also thus is the most similar. This can conveniently be viewed on a periodic table as aspects with comparable properties space grouped together in the same column. Keep in mind that this similarities to happen from having actually the same variety of valence electrons. 


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