Read this article to learn around the adhering to three vital tools of financial analysis, i.e., (a) Comparative financial Statements, (b) usual Size Statements, and (c) tendency Ratios or Percentages.

1. Preparation of Comparative gaue won Statements:

Comparative jae won Statements refer to the explanation of financial position of a business, i m sorry are ready in such a method as to provide a time perspective to the various aspects embodied in the jae won statements.

These statements incorporate two varieties of analysis statements. They room Comparative Balance Sheets and also Comparative earnings Statement. In this statements figures are put side by next for two or more periods in order to facilitate comparison.

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They additionally facilitate comparison amongst two or more firms that belong to the exact same industry. Comparison might be regarding to profitability and also financial soundness.

Preparation the Comparative jae won Statements:

Comparative declaration mainly show the adhering to information because that analytical purposes:

(a) yes, really data in pure money values, as offered in the financial statements for the durations under consideration.

(b) boosts or to reduce in miscellaneous items in money values, and also


(c) rises or decreases in miscellaneous items in regards to percentages

The following examples would illustrate the method of ready of a compare Balance Sheet and a Comparative earnings Statement v imaginary figures:



Tentative Conclusions:

Total solved assets have actually been included during the year 2002 through Rs.55 lakhs contrasted to 2001, for which long-term investments worth Rs.50 lakhs have been realized. The level of existing assets worth Rs.42 lakhs has been reduced.


Despite the boost in addressed assets, the complete assets have been lessened by Rs.37 lakhs. It suggests that the enhancement to resolved assets has been partly financed by the sale or palliation of other assets.

Increase in addressed assets and decrease in present assets reflect a poor financial policy. The relationship in between the complete current assets and also total present liabilities is no satisfactory.

Increase in the choice share capital of Rs.100 lakhs might have been due to the fresh problem of shares because that the redemption the debentures. Also, the boost in reserves might represent the redemption the debentures the end of profits.

Comparative income Statement:


Similar come the to compare Balance Sheet, the Comparative earnings Statement consists of the exact same columns and also supplies the same form of information.

It is depicted below:

The Comparative revenue Statement explains the relationship in between sales and also cost of products sold and also its result on gross profit. Rise in selling expenses and also office and management expenses relating to the boost in sale must not it is in proportional.

This will indicate plainly the performance of to work by showing alters in absolute figures and likewise in terms of percentage of the operating revenues from one duration to another.


The suppliers Act the India insists that companies should give numbers for various items for the vault year in addition to the present year’s numbers in the Profit and Loss account and Balance Sheet.




While network sales have actually increased by 33.33%, the expense of items sold has actually increased through 25%. The portion of profits has actually increased by 50%. The rise in complete operating prices is 25% only, which has increased the net operating revenues by 56.25%. The as whole performance in 2002 is satisfactory compared to 2001.


The main limitation of Comparative financial Statements is the they failure to show the alters that have actually taken location from year come year in relationship to complete assets, total liabilities and also capital or full net sales. Common-size analysis eliminates this limitation.

2. Ready Common-Size Statements:

Common-size jae won Statements space those declaration in i beg your pardon items report in the gaue won statements are converted right into percentages acquisition some typical base. In the Common-size earnings Statement, the network sales room assumed to be 100% and also other items space expressed as a percentage of sales.

Similarly in the Common-size Balance paper the complete assets or total liabilities are assumed to be 100% and other items of assets and also liabilities are expressed together a percent of this complete .

Common- size statements are additionally called as “Component Statements” or “100 per cent Statement” due to the fact that each declare is diminished to the total of 100 and also each separation, personal, instance item is expressed as a percent of this total.



The ready of Common-size explain is shown below based on the imaginary figures used in the examples of Comparative gaue won Statements:




The percent of resolved assets to total assets increased from 58.83% in 2001 come 63% in 2002. At the exact same time the percent of current assets reduced from 30.47% to 28.31%. This indicates a bad current assets administration policy.

The value of invest has likewise decreased native 10.70% to 8.19%, which may be in order come finance the increase in resolved assets. The preference share capital has increased from 10.70% to 16.37% and reserves indigenous 10.69% to 13.64% but at the exact same time, the long-term as well as the present liabilities to total liabilities has come under from 51.87% to 42.72%.


Compared to total current liabilities the full current assets are inadequate. Hence, the working capital position is no satisfactory. In basic the financial policy of the worry is very unsatisfactory.



The gross benefit percentage has increased indigenous 33.33 come 37.50. This increase is much more than proportionate compared to sales. This is because the rise in expense of items sold is less than proportional.

Similarly the net profit percent has additionally increased indigenous 26.67 come 31.25. In general, the overall operating efficiency of the service is very satisfactory.

3. Tendency Percentages or Ratios:

Trend analysis refers come the to compare of past data end a duration of time through that of a base year. Under this method, percent relationship that each declare item bears to the same item in the basic year is calculated.

Any year i.e., the earliest year associated in comparison, or the latest year, or any kind of intervening year, may be taken as the basic year. As the function of this analysis is to to mark some necessary changes, the trend percentages are calculated just for some necessary items that deserve to be connected with each other.


The concerned item in the base year is taken to be equal to as 100 and also then based on this, trend percentages because that the equivalent items in various other years space calculated.

This an approach is a horizontal form of evaluation of financial statements. The trend percentages are shown in comparative financial statements. Trend analysis is a beneficial tool for the management since it reduces big amount of absolute data into a simple and quickly readable form. By looking at the trend in a details ratio one deserve to see whether the proportion is raising or decreasing or continuing to be constant. Native this a difficulty is uncovered and an excellent management is observed.

Precautions to be taken:

1. The base year selected need to be normal and be important representative of all years involved in the analysis.

2. The financial statements offered for the evaluation must have actually been prepared applying consistent bookkeeping principles and practices.

3. The numbers of the various accountancy statements taken into consideration for the analysis should be adjusted for any kind of price level changes, as contrasted to basic year, before computing tendency percentages.


4. Trend percentages have to be studied together with the absolute figures on i beg your pardon they are based. This will permit us to know whether the readjust is far-reaching or not.

For example, one items may rise from Rs.100 come Rs.200 and also the various other item may change from Rs. 10,000 come Rs. 14,000 . Of this two, the adjust in the an initial item is not far-ranging compared come the second item.

The trend ratios for the assets of a balance sheet room illustrated below with imaginary figures:



A separate pillar for the base year <1999> need not be listed in the compare balance sheet.


From the above statement that is clear that both the solved assets and current assets have registered raising trend. This is one indication of the company’s expansion over the period.

Similar come this analysis, trend percentages can be computed for the vital items that the liabilities side of the balance sheet and of the revenue Statement.

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Illustration 1:


Comment ~ above the significant changes that have actually taken place throughout the year 2002.





Individual and also total present assets have diminished in 2002 when contrasted to 2001. The full current heritage have diminished by 34%. Invest have likewise decreased by 37%.

Amounts realized from the assets have been greatly used to repay present liabilities and also the balance provided for the purchase of fixed assets. Fixed assets, specifically buildings have increased considerably by 146% and also other assets by 32%.

It is heartening to note that this assets have actually been funded with the concern of debentures by 63% and equity and also surplus by 65%. Generally, over there is an overall increase in complete assets in 2002 end 2001 only by 20%.

Illustration 2:

From the adhering to Income statements of abc Ltd., prepare a Comparative earnings Statement:

Income Statements because that the year finishing 31st December 2001 and also 2002




Illustration 3:

Convert the complying with Income explain into usual Size Statement and also interpret the transforms in 2002 in the light of conditions in 2001:




The evaluation of the over income statement allows to attract the complying with conclusions:

(a) throughout the year 2002 the expense of goods sold has declined by 4.5% i.e., from 60.7% come 56.2%. This decrease may be due to the to decrease in cost of life materials. Fan to this decline, the gross profit ratio has actually increased from 39.3% to 43.8%.

(b) The operating prices have decreased by 2.3%, which suggests high operation efficiency and also economy in expenditure; both administrative and also selling prices have decreased less than proportionately in spite of the boost in these items in pure amounts.

(c) The an unified effect of to decrease in cost of items sold and operating costs has led to for boost in network operating income by 6.8% i.e., indigenous 9.3% in 2001 to 16.1% in 2002.

(d) The boost in non-operating income is a welcome attribute while the equivalent increase in non-operating expenses proportionately is no desirable.

As final conclusion, it might be stated that the company has to be operating much more efficiently in 2002 as contrasted to 2001.

Illustration 4:

From the adhering to information, analyze the results of operations of a manufacturing worry using tendency ratios:





From the over statement, that is viewed that the sales, expense of goods sold and operating prices have decreased in 2000 when compared to basic year 1999. However one important suggest that the decrease in sales is comparatively much less than the cost and operating expenses.

On the other hand, the sales, cost and also operating costs have all increased in 2001 and 2002 as contrasted tol999. Yet the rise in cost and also operating costs is lesser than the boost in sales.

As a conclusion we might infer from these tendency ratios that a larger portion of expense of goods and also operating costs is fixed and they space not influenced by change in sales volume. Due to the fact that of this, we find that the net operation profit is much more in 2001 and 2002 as compared to 1999.

Illustration 5:

Develop pro-forma income statement for the month of April, May and also June because that a firm from the adhering to particulars:

(a) Sales room projected in ~ Rs. 4, 50,000, Rs. 4, 80,000 and also Rs. 5, 00,000 for April, May and June respectively.

(b) price of goods sold is Rs. 1, 00,000 add to 30% of selling price every month.

(c) rent is Rs. 15,000 every month. Management expenses because that April room expected to be Rs. 1, 20,000 yet expected to climb 1% per month end the vault month’s expenses.