A diet rich in carbohydrates increases both endurance and also intermittent high-intensity performance since of the extra save of carbohydrate in the muscles and liver, referred to as glycogen. That is well documented that athletes should replenish carbohydrate stores in the body, especially during periods of extreme training or competition. Consuming carbohydrates during workouts lasting over one hour can additionally benefit performance and delay onset the fatigue. Research studies have displayed that athletes who get involved in intermittent sports, such together basketball and soccer, should likewise focus top top consuming much more carbohydrates throughout training and competition. This is not surprising since it is popular that carbohydrates, when compared to protein and also dietary fat, room the most efficiently broken down and metabolized kind of energy for the body.

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As at an early stage as the 1930s, scientists observed the endurance exercise might be enhanced by raising carbohydrates in the diet.

Depending ~ above the training routine, athletes need to consume all over from 3-12 grams the carbohydrates per kilogram that bodyweight transparent the day. This percent is just a tip for estimating carbohydrate needs. Relying on the length and kind of training sessions, an athlete’s carbohydrate intake must adjust, with longer times and much more intense trainings reflecting the higher number the grams needed.

Table 1 determining Grams the Carbohydrates because that Athletes NeedsThe following example shows exactly how to calculate the encourage grams that carbohydrates required per pound of human body weight.


IMAGE TEXT:Now calculation your own needs. Psychic to division your body weight in pounds through 2.2 to acquire your load in kilograms. Then multiply her body load by a number of carbohydrate grams based upon the time and also intensity the the training. For example, one hour per day of middle intensity practice by warrant utilizing 5 grams.

The pre-exercise or pre-training enjoy the meal serves 2 purposes:

It keeps the athlete from emotion hungry before and also during exercise, andIt maintains optimal level of energy for the exercising muscles.

Athletes who train at an early stage in the morning, prior to eating or drinking, should ensure the vault night’s meal contains adequate carbohydrates and also then consume around 30 grams of fine tolerated carbohydrates 5 minutes before training to help maintain blood glucose and muscle glycogen levels. Blood glucose, the sugar uncovered in the blood, is the energy ceded to the functioning muscles and organs, in addition to muscle glycogen, that enables your human body to finish activity.

Carbohydrate input before and after exercise can assist to reclaim sub-optimal glycogen stores, which is an important for an extensive periods of exercise. While allowing for personal preferences and physiological factors, the pre-event meal should be high in carbohydrates, non-greasy, and also readily digestible. Fatty foods should be limited as they hold-up the emptying time that the stomach and also take much longer to digest. The adhering to are guidelines for the pre-event meal:

The meal need to be eaten 3-4 hours before an event.It should administer 3-4 grams per kilogram of body weight.To avoid stomach upset, the carbohydrate content of meals have to be reduced the closer the meals are to the event. (1-2 grams per kilogram 1-2 hours prior to the event).Adding small amounts of protein can assist in regulating energy levels through slowing down carbohydrate absorption, delivering the carbohydrates to the functioning muscles in ~ a more consistent rate over time.Pay fist to braided cravings. If contending in hot/humid climates, make certain to change electrolyte losses v salty snack foods, such together pretzels or sports drinks with included sodium.


TABLE 2 photo TEXT:

SUGGESTED MEALS for PRE-EVENT EATING.This example shows how to calculate the encourage grams the carbohydrate necessary per pround of body weight.

1 Hour of Less

Dried MangoRaisinsBananaGranola barPretzelsFig bar (2)ApplesauceSports drink*ToastCrackers

Serving Size

3 ozsmal box (2.5 oz)7 ox2 bar pack20 pieces1 oz4 oz8 oz1 slice5 crackers

Grams the Carbohydrates

28 g34 g31 g29 g22 g20 g14 g14 g14 g10 g


2-3 hours before

Baked potato (plain)Cereal (whole grain)/low-fat milk (1%)Bagel (whole grain) with peanut butterFruit smoothieFood bar (oatmeal raisin walnut)Oatmeal (instant)/low-fat milk (1%)Flavored Greek yogurt (nonfat)Pancakes/waffles (from mix)Fresh fruit (chopped apple)

Serving Size

1 largecereal: 1 cup, milk: 1/2 cup1 bagel, 2 tbsp peanut butter12 fl oz1 baroatmeal: 1 cup, milk: 1/2 cup1 cup2 pancakes (5″ diameter)1 cup

Grams the Carbohydrates

58 gcereal: 47 g, milk: 8 gbagel: 47 g, peanut butter: 8 g47 g43 goatmeal: 26 g, milk: 8 g27 g20 g19 g

4 or much more Hours before

Spaghetti through meat saucePasta/Chicken/VegetablesGrilled chicken/rice (white)/fruit (grapes)Snack bar (oatmeal raisin walnut)/sports drink*High protein milk shakeTurkey sandwich (w/ 3 slices deli meat, 2 slices whole wheat bread, low-fat mayo)/baby carrotsTuna sandwich (2 slices whole wheat bread)/nonfat mayoTrail mix with nuts/raisins

Serving Size

2-3 cupspasta: 1 cup, chicken: 4 oz, vegetables: 1 cupchicken: 3 oz, rice: 6 oz, fruit: 1 cup1 bar, drink: 8 oz12 fl ozturkey: 1 slice, mayo: 1 tbsp, bread: 2 slices, 7 carrotstuna: 2 oz drained, bread: 2 slices, mayo: 1 tbsp1/3 cup

Grams the Carbohydrates

75-100 gpasta: 60 g, chicken: 0 g, vegetables: 6 gchicken: 0 g, rice: 44.4 g, fruit: 25 gbar: 43 g, drink: 14 g40 gturkey: 0 g, mayo: 0 g, bread: 12 g, carrots: 3 gtuna: 0 g, bread: 24 g, mayo: 0 g20 g

*Remember that sporting activities drinks space beverages that contain electrolytes and also carbohydrates, no caffeine and other stimulants. For much more information on sports drinks and hydration, check out the Fluids and Hydration section.

It is vital that athletes eat after contending to make sure that castle will have enough power in the muscles because that the next race or competition, even if it is it be in the very same day or the adhering to days. The very same dietary intake values used to setup the pre-exercise enjoy the meal can likewise apply to foods consumed at all-day events. If an athlete gyeongju at 10:00 a.m. And also again after 2 hours, foods items that space high in protein and fat will much more than most likely still it is in in the stomach potentially bring about stomach or cradle (GI) distress. The complying with guidelines have actually been recommended to assist athletes make wise food choices at all-day events.

One hour or less between events or heats:

Stick through carbohydrates that room in fluid form, together as sporting activities drinks.If something solid requirements to it is in eaten, try fruits choose oranges, watermelon, cantaloupe, peaches, pears, applesauce, or bananas.

These foodstuffs consist of mainly carbohydrates and water. They are digested very fast and therefore, will certainly not cause as much of a trouble with stomach cramping or GI distress.

Another crucial point to making food selections with minimal time between events, is limiting the quantity of the food eaten. The more an athlete eats, the longer it will require to digest, especially with any kind of pre-competition nerves or stress.

Two to 3 hours in between events or heats:

Foods containing carbohydrates and some protein can be eaten, as there is enough time come digest them before competition.Try eat granola bars with jerky, hot or cold grain with nonfat milk, or english muffins together with fruit choose bananas, apples, oranges, peaches, or pears.Be certain to drink plenty of fluids, like water or a sporting activities drink, because that hydration, electrolyte replacement, and also restoration of glycogen stores. Prevent drinks the contain caffeine, carbonation and also other stimulants.

Four or much more hours between events or heats:

With 4 or an ext hours in between events or heats, an athlete might want a meal, which have to be composed generally of carbohydrates. Save the meals simple. The adhering to meal instances for this instance are appropriate:

A turkey sandwich on two slices of whole wheat bread, Greek yogurt with fruit, and water or a sporting activities (fluid replacement) drink; orSpaghetti with lean meatballs, bread, salad through dressing, and also water or a sports (fluid replacement) drink.

If over there is a certain meal pattern prior to competition the an athlete thinks is a win combination, then they have to stick come it.

Athletes that make food selections at concession stands need to know just how to do the finest choices. Many concession stands room filled through high-fat, high-calorie foodstuffs that room not designed come maximize performance. The is constantly wiser because that athletes to load a cooler from home with win combinations, 보다 to count on the food in ~ a concession stand. Table 3 has a perform of nutrient-dense foods that are easy to load in a cooler and will aid supply power throughout the day.

During Exercise:

Consuming carbohydrates during exercise lasting much longer than 60 minutes ensures the the muscles obtain adequate amounts of energy, especially during the later stages that the vain or workout. This has likewise been found to improve performance. The type of carbohydrates spend does matter. Part athletes favor to use a sporting activities drink, whereas others prefer to eat solid or gel creates of carbohydrates. Use the complying with guidelines as soon as consuming sporting activities drinks with carbohydrates.

Consume 6 come 12 ounces that a sports drink with 6-8% carbohydrate concentration every 15-30 minutes throughout exercise (see Table 4). One gulp is around 2 ounces.Water is required to assist in absorption of the carbohydrate. Drinks through a concentration greater than 10 percent are often connected with abdominal muscle cramps, nausea, and also diarrhea.For high strongness activities, sporting activities drinks and gels comprise multiple forms of sugar deserve to increase absorption and also delivery the carbohydrates.

Note: sporting activities drinks need to not be puzzled with “energy” drinks. “Energy” drinks commonly contain one or much more stimulants and their carbohydrate concentration is usually greater than 10%.

* sporting activities drinks space beverages the contain electrolytes and carbohydrates, no caffeine and also other stimulants.



Baby carrotsPeanut butter pretzelsCeleryCherry tomatoesChocolate milk (lowfat)String cheeseDried mangoSports drink*Snack bar (oatmeal raisin walnut)Fresh fruitGinger snapsHummusHigh protein milk shakeNuts (mixed)Peanut butterPita bread (whole wheat large pita)Turkey sandwich (3 slices deli meat, mustard, 2 slices whole wheat bread), infant carrotsVanilla wafersWhle serial bagelWhole grain cerealWhole serial crackersGreek yogurt tubes

Serving Size

7 carrots8 pieces1 big stalk1/2 cup1 cup2 sticks1 package8 oz1 bar1 piece of 1 cup1 oz1/4 cup1 bottle (12 fl oz)1/4 cup2 tbsp1 pitaturkey: 1 slice, mustard: 1 tbsp, bread: 1 slice, 7 carrots4 wafers1 bagel (4 oz)1 cup5 crackers4 tubes


0 g7 g0 g0 g2 g12 g0 g0 g5 g3 g5 g4.5 g15 g16 g2 g1 g every turkey slice, 0 g mustard, 5 g every bread slice, 0 g carrots10 g1.5 g1 g15 g4 g


3 g15 g2 g7 g26 g2 g56 g14 g43 g19 g22 g13 g40 g7 g 7 g 35 g0 g per turkey slice, 0 g mustard, 24 g every bread slice, 3 g carrots19 g47 g47 g11 g24 g



0 g5 g 0 g1 g 8 g16 g4 g0 g10 g.3 g2 g3 g20 g5 g8 g6 g5 g every turkey slice, 0 g mustard, 2 g per bread slice, 11 g7 g1 g20 g

TABLE 4 picture TEXT:

CALCULATING CARBOHYDRATE concentrations IN BEVERAGES.To asses the concetration of a liquid replacement drink or any type of beverage, use the complying with calculations:Amount that carbohydrate in grams (from the label) divded through the volume in one offer (use 240 ml per cup), time 100 = the percentage.

Remember that sporting activities drinks room beverages that contain electrolytes and carbohydrates, no caffeine and also other stimulants. For an ext information on sporting activities drinks and hydration, review the Fluids and also Hydration section.

Consuming a carbohydrate snack as soon as feasible after training will permit the human body to begin replenishing glycogen stores in the body. Additionally, spend a pair of mixed meals high in carbohydrates in ~ six hrs after training or a compete ensures that the muscles continue with glycogen restoration.

Athletes that may advantage from restore nutrition encompass those that are completing in tournament play or have multiple competitions end the course of one or number of days, have skipped meals transparent the day, did no consume enough calories, and want to improve strength and also power.The recommendation is 1-1.2 grams that carbohydrates every kilogram that body load per hour for the very first four hrs after exercise. Refueling may be magnified by consuming tiny amounts the carbohydrate an ext frequently (every 15-30 minutes) for up to four hours.Add a little amount (~20 grams) the protein to the an initial feeding to stimulate muscle repair and also rebuilding.Table 5 and 6 perform recovery tips and also examples of restore snacks.

TABLE 5 photo TEXT:


To refill power in the muscle v trainings less than eight hours apart, eat as shortly as feasible after exercise and then every 15-30 minutes because that up to four hours.Choose higher-carbohydrate foods such as bagels, pasta, fruits, yogurts, cereal with low-fat milk, peanut butter, sporting activities drinks, granola bars, french toast, below sandwiches, baked potatoes with chili, smoothie made with fruit, fruit juice, yogurt, and also frozen yogurt.Include protein to help in muscle recovery and promote muscle growth.If friend can’t consume solid foods as shortly as feasible after exercise, shot 2-4 cups of a sports drink, climate consume heavy fod within four hours post-exercise.Consume 1-1.2 g the carbohydrates per kilogram body weight per hour for the an initial four hours after glycogen-depleting exercise. Be certain to rehydrate together well.

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TABLE 6 photo TEXT:


Cereal v milkFruit and also nonfat yogurtPita and also hummusTrail mixChocolate milk (lowfat)Banana through peanut butter


Read the full Nutrition Guide and also learn much more about just how to gain peak performance v optimal nutrition.