For this evaluation we surveyed 3,030 U.S. Hispanic adult in December 2019 as part of the 2019 national Survey of Latinos. Us asked survey respondents about their awareness of the ax Latinx and their see of the term. The sample contains 2,094 spain adults who were members the Pew study Center’s American trends Panel (ATP), an virtual survey panel that is recruited v national, random sampling of residential addresses. It also includes an oversample that 936 respondents sampled indigenous Ipsos’ KnowledgePanel, an additional online inspection panel likewise recruited v national, random sampling that residential addresses. For the purposes of this report, referrals to foreign-born Hispanics incorporate those born in Puerto Rico. Individuals born in Puerto Rico are U.S. Citizens by birth. The inspection was performed in both English and also Spanish.
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See the Methodology section of this report for an ext details.
The state Hispanic and Latino are provided interchangeably in this report.
Latinx is a term offered to describe world who are of or relate come Latin American origin or descent. That is a gender-neutral or nonbinary alternative to Latino or Latina.
U.S. Born refers come persons born in the united States and also those born in other nations to parents at least one of whom to be a U.S. Citizen.
Foreign born refers to persons born exterior of the United claims to parental neither of whom was a U.S. Citizen. The terms international born and also immigrant are supplied interchangeably in this report. Because that the objectives of this report, foreign born also includes those born in Puerto Rico. Although people born in Puerto Rico space U.S. Citizens by birth, they space included amongst the international born for this report because they space born into a Spanish-dominant culture and since on plenty of points their attitudes, views and also beliefs are much closer to spain born abroad than to hispanics born in the 50 says or the ar of Columbia, even those who recognize themselves together being of Puerto Rican origin.
Second generation ad to human being born in the 50 says or the district of Columbia with at least one first-generation, or immigrant, parent.
Third and higher generation advert to civilization born in the 50 claims or the district of Columbia through both parental born in the 50 states or the ar of Columbia.
Language prominence is a composite measure based upon self-described assessments that speaking and also reading abilities. Spanish-dominant civilization are an ext proficient in Spanish than in English (i.e., castle speak and also read Spanish “very well” or “pretty well” but rate your English-speaking and also reading capability lower). Bilingual advert to people who are competent in both English and also Spanish. English-dominant civilization are much more proficient in English than in Spanish.
Pan-ethnic brand describing the U.S. Populace of human being tracing their roots come Latin America and also Spain have actually been introduced over the decades, rising and falling in popularity. Today, the two leading labels in use space Hispanic and Latino, with origins in the 1970s and 1990s respectively.
However, because that the populace it is meant to describe, only 23% that U.S. Adults who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino have actually heard that the term Latinx, and also just 3% to speak they use it to define themselves, follow to a nationally representative, bilingual survey of U.S. Spain adults conducted in December 2019 by Pew research Center.
The development of Latinx corresponds with a worldwide movement to introduce gender-neutral nouns and also pronouns into many languages who grammar has actually traditionally offered male or woman constructions. In the joined States, the first uses that Latinx appeared much more than a te ago. It was included to a widely offered English dictionary in 2018, reflecting its greater use.
Yet the usage of Latinx is not typical practice, and the term’s emergence has generated debate around its appropriateness in a gendered language favor Spanish. Some critics point to the origins amongst U.S. English speakers, speak it ignores the Spanish language and also its gendered form.1 Still, there are examples of the term’s use in Spanish in the U.S. And abroad.2 Meanwhile, others view Latinx as a gender- and also LGBTQ-inclusive term, showing a wider movement in ~ the U.S. Approximately gender identity.
In addition, the U.S. Born are more likely 보다 the international born to have actually heard the hatchet (32% vs. 16%), and also Hispanics who are predominantly English speaker or bilingual are much more likely than those who mainly speak Spanish come say the exact same (29% because that both vs. 7%).
Hispanics who determine with or lean toward the democratic Party are an ext likely to have heard that Latinx than those who identify with or lean towards the Republican Party (29% vs. 16%).
Awareness the the term Latinx does no necessarily interpret into use. Throughout many demography subgroups, the re-publishing of Hispanics that say they usage Latinx to define their own identity is substantially lower than the share that say they have actually heard it. Use is among the greatest for hispanic women periods 18 to 29 – 14% say they usage it, a considerably greater share than the 1% that Hispanic guys in the same period group that say they use it.
The appearance of Hispanic, Latino and also Latinx
Throughout the critical half-century in the U.S., various pan-ethnic terms have developed to describe Americans who trace their roots to Latin America and also Spain.
The term spain was very first used through the U.S. Federal government in the 1970s after mexico American and other Hispanic organizations lobbied the federal federal government to collection data top top the population. Subsequently, the U.S conference passed Public legislation 94-311 in 1976, mandating the arsenal of information about U.S. Inhabitants of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, main American, south American and also other Spanish-speaking country origins. The law referred to as for the U.S. Census office to create a more comprehensive category that encompassed all world who identified having roots from these countries. The term spain was first used in a full census in 1980.
The 1990s lugged resistance come the term Hispanic, together it embraced a solid connection through Spain, and an alternative term emerged: Latino. By 1997, the U.S. Office of Management and also Budget issued a directive including the hatchet Latino to federal government publications. The two terms are provided interchangeably, with Latino very first appearing ~ above the U.S. Census in 2000, alongside Hispanic.
More recently, Latinx has arised as an alternate to Hispanic and also Latino. Digital searches for the term among the general U.S. Population appeared virtual in the early on 2000s. But the very first substantial climb in searches (relative to all virtual searches) appeared in June 2016 adhering to a shooting in ~ Pulse nightclub, one LGBTQ dance club in Orlando, Florida, that was hosting that is Latin Night ~ above the date of the attack. In succeeding years, the term’s usage on social media through celebrities, politicians and also grassroots organizations has actually grown. In addition, some academic centers at neighborhood colleges, publicly universities and Ivy league universities room replacing Latino program names that were established in previous years with brand-new Latinx-focused names.
In more than 15 years of polling by Pew research study Center, half of american who map their root to Spanish-speaking Latin America and also Spain have actually consistently claimed they have no preference for either Hispanic or Latino together a hatchet to explain the group. And also when one ax is preferred over another, the term Hispanic has been desired to Latino. Importantly, the very same surveys show, nation of origin labels (such as Mexican or Cuban or Ecuadorian) are desired to this pan-ethnic terms among the populace they are meant to describe.
Google searches because that Latinx climbing in U.S., however trail much behind Latina, Latino and Hispanic
The loved one popularity that Latinx in virtual searches in the U.S. Has increased since 2016, according to a Pew research Center evaluation of Google fads data.3 if its faster Google searches extend ago to the early 2000s, the highest possible monthly relative number of searches because that Latinx developed in June 2020, surpassing a previous top in October 2019.4
Should Latinx be adopted as a pan-ethnic term for U.S. Hispanics?
While some Hispanics speak Latinx have to be provided as a pan-ethnic term, few say they favor it end others. A majority (61%) say they like Hispanic to describe the spain or Latino populace in the U.S., and 29% speak they choose Latino. Meanwhile, just 4% say they choose Latinx to define the spain or Latino population.
Preference for Latinx together a pan-ethnic ax is higher among those who are aware of that – 10% in this team say they prefer Latinx. However even amongst those aware of Latinx, the terms Hispanic (50%) and also Latino (31%) space preferred.
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In their own words: What walk Latinx median to Hispanics?
When asked in an open-ended question what Latinx way in their very own words, 42% that those who have heard the term define it as a gender-neutral one. Together one 21-year-old mrs said, “Latinx is a an ext inclusive term to usage for those who execute not select to determine with a particular gender. The terms Latino and also Latina are really limiting for details people.”
Other responses native the open-ended question offer other descriptions the Latinx and also reactions come it. For example, 12% of respondent who had actually heard that Latinx express disagreement or dislike the the term. Some explained the term as an “anglicism” the the Spanish language, while others say the term is “not representative of the larger Latino community.”
Among other responses, 12% to speak Latinx is a term about being spain or Latino, when 9% that those mindful of Latinx to speak it is an LGBTQ community inclusive term. And also 6% of respondent who have actually heard the Latinx speak it is a new, alternative or replacement term for Latino.