Routing details Protocol (RIP) is a street vector protocol that provides hop count together its primary metric. RIP defines how routers have to share info when moving traffic amongst an interconnected team of neighborhood area networks (LANs).

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In the enterprise, open Shortest Path very first (OSPF) routing has largely replaced RIP together the many widely used inner Gateway Protocol (IGP). RIP has actually been supplanted mainly because of its simplicity and also its inability to scale to very big and facility networks. Border gateway protocol (BGP) is an additional distance vector protocol the is now used to move routing information throughout autonomous equipment on the Internet.

Routing details Protocol was initially designed because that Xerox PARC global Protocol and was referred to as GWINFO in the Xerox Network solution (XNS) protocol suite in 1981. RIP, i beg your pardon was identified in RFC 1058 in 1988, is recognized for being easy to configure and easy to usage in small networks.

How Routing information Protocol (RIP) works

RIP uses a distance vector algorithm to decide which route to placed a packet onto acquire to the destination. Each RIP router maintains a routing table, i beg your pardon is a list of all the destinations the router knows just how to reach. Every router broadcasts its whole routing table to its closest next-door neighbors every 30 seconds. In this context,neighborsare the other routers come which a router is associated directly -- the is, the various other routers ~ above the exact same network segments together the selected router. The neighbors, in turn, pass the details on to their nearest neighbors, and also so on, till all RIP master within the network have the same expertise of routing paths. This shared understanding is known asconvergence.

If a router receive an upgrade on a route, and the new path is shorter, that will upgrade its table entry v the length and also next-hop resolve of the much shorter path. If the brand-new path is longer, it will certainly wait v a "hold-down" duration to view if later on updates reflect the greater value together well. It will only update the table entry if the new, much longer path has actually been established to be stable.

If a router crashes or a network link is severed, the network discovers this due to the fact that that router stops sending updates come its neighbors, or stops sending and also receiving updates along the severed connection. If a offered route in the routing table isn"t updated throughout six succeeding update cycles (that is, for 180 seconds) a RIP router will drop the route and let the rest of the network know around the trouble through its own periodic updates.

Versions

There room three execution of the Routing details Protocol: RIPv1, RIPv2 and also RIPng.

RIPv1-- standardization in 1988 -- is additionally called Classful Routing Protocol because it does not send subnet mask info in that routing updates. On the various other hand, RIPv2 -- standardization in 1998 -- is called Classless Routing Protocol since it does send subnet mask information in the routing updates. RIPng is an expansion of RIPv2 that was made to assistance IPv6.

In RIPv1, courses are decided based upon the IP destination and hop count. RIPv2 progressed this an approach and started to encompass subnet masks and gateways. Furthermore, the routing table in RIPv1 is transfer to every terminal on the enclosed network vice versa, RIPv2 sends out the routing table come a multicast resolve in an effort to reduce network traffic. Additionally, RIPv2 supplies authentication for protection -- a feature missing from RIPv1.

Configuration

RIP operates on the applications layer of the OSI model. The configuration procedure for the Routing details Protocol is fairly simple. As soon as IP addresses have actually been assigned to the involved computers and interfaces of routers, then developers can problem the router RIP command -- which tells the router to allow RIP -- complied with by the network command -- which allows users to determine which networks they want to occupational with. Just the networks directly linked with the router must be specified.

Users can also configure any type of port to execute the following actions:

stop RIP packets native being sent or received. Get packets in miscellaneous formats. Send packets formatted for each of the various RIP versions to the RIPv1 transfer address.
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visual depiction that RIP

Features of RIP

RIP offers a modified hop count as a means to recognize network distance. Modified reflects the fact that network engineers can assign courses a higher cost. By default, if a router"s neighbor owns a location network and also can deliver packets directly to the destination network there is no using any other routers, that route has one hop. In network administration terminology, this is defined as a expense of one.

RIP permits only 15 hops in a path. If a packet can"t with a destination in 15 hops, the location is considered unreachable. Paths deserve to be assigned a higher cost (as if they involved extra hops) if the enterprise wants to limit or discourage their use. Because that example, a satellite backup link can be assigned a expense of 10 to force traffic come follow various other routes once available.

RIP timers

Timers in RIP aid regulate performance. Lock include:

Update timer -- Frequency of routing updates. Every 30 seconds IP RIP sends a finish copy that its routing table, subject to break-up horizon. (Internetwork packet exchange RIP walk this every 60 seconds.)

Invalid timer -- absence of refreshed contents in a routing update. RIP waits 180 seconds to mark a path as invalid and also immediately put it into hold-down.

Hold-down timers and also triggered updates -- help with security of routes in the Cisco environment. Hold-downs certain that continuous update messages carry out not inappropriately cause a routing loop. The router doesn"t plot on non-superior new information for a certain period of time. RIP"s hold-down time is 180 seconds.

Flush timer -- RIP waits secondary 240 secs after hold-down before it actually removes the route from the table.

Other stability attributes to assist with routing loops encompass poison reverse. A poison reverse is a means in which a gateway node speak its neighbor gateways that among the gateways is no much longer connected. To do this, the notifying gateway sets the number of hops to the unconnected gateway to a number that suggests infinite, which in layman"s terms simply method "You can"t acquire there." because RIP permits up to 15 hops to one more gateway, setup the hop counting to 16 is the indistinguishable of "infinite."

Advantages

Advantages the RIP include:

Feasible configuration easy to understand guarantee to support nearly all routers

Additionally, RIP is wanted over static routes because of its straightforward configuration and the fact that the does not require an upgrade every time the topology changes. Unfortunately, the disadvantage the RIP is its boosted network and also processing overhead when compared to static routing.

Other disadvantages include:

Not constantly loop free Only equal-cost pack balancing is supported Pinhole congestion can occur big networks result in slow convergence

Limitations

While making use of RIP, users might run right into various limitations. Because that example, the Routing info Protocol outcomes in raised network traffic because of the checks and also updates that performs on surrounding routers every 30 seconds. Furthermore, because RIP just updates surrounding routers, updates for non-neighboring routers deserve to be forgotten due to the fact that the info is not instantly accessible.

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Another limitation the RIP is the enforcement the a preferably hop counting of 15. Together a result, remote routers in big networks may not have the ability to be accessed or reached. Furthermore, the closestly path may not be the shortest path. This is since RIP does not take various factors into factor to consider when calculating the shortest path.

RIP also stands for: raster photo processor


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