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Raja Gnanadev,1 Joe Iwanaga,2 Marios Loukas,3 and also R. Shane Tubbs4
Corresponding author.

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The hyoid contributes to many biomechanical processes including swallowing. Additionally, the hyoid bone has been studied for over a century in an initiative to catalog and also categorize numerous observed biometric differences. This has actually led come the hyoid gift a significant structure affiliated in forensic pathology. In this paper, we talk about a really unusual recognize of one adult mrs hyoid bone.


The hyoid bone is a distinct structure in the human body for countless reasons. The larynx is really cartilaginous area, except for the sole local bony structure—the hyoid bone. Famously, the hyoid bone is the just bone in people that does no articulate with any kind of other bone, however only has muscular, ligamentous, and also cartilaginous attachments. Provided this peculiarity, it has actually been defined as “free floating” <1>.

Given that the vast number of muscles is attached to the hyoid, it is no surprise that the hyoid bone contributes to actions such together mastication and also swallowing. Additionally, sport in morphometric data between the sexes have been fine studied and also have had a solid contribution come forensic medication for decades <2-3>.

Herein, we report an inexplicable variation that the hyoid bone and also briefly evaluation morphometric research studies on hyoid bone anatomy.

Case presentation

During the program dissection that the head and neck of an adult female Caucasian new frozen cadaver, an inexplicable morphology of the hyoid bone to be observed. The sternohyoid and also omohyoid muscles are attached to the lower border that the hyoid body as usual. The hyoid bone was resected from the anterior neck and also the soft tissues on the bone were removed. The height of the body of the hyoid bone climate was uncovered to be bigger than normal and also measured 15.9 mm (Figure 1). However, the greater cornu and also lesser cornu were found to be normal in size and also orientation. The inferior edge the the body of the bone was drawn out and also presented through an unusual edge at the site of attachments of the omohyoid and also sternohyoid muscles. No ahead scars or proof of trauma was uncovered in this specimen in the an ar dissection. Additionally, no other anatomical variations were noted. 


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Figure 1
Measurement the the variant hyoid bone.


The hyoid bone is situated inferior to the mandible, and superior come the thyroid cartilage at the level the the 3rd cervical vertebra in the midline. Laryngeal muscles attach on the exceptional body, inferior body, and laterally follow me the each of the horns. Embryologically, the cartilage that the 2nd pharyngeal (hyoid) arch forms the lesser horn and that that the third pharyngeal arch gives rise come the better horn. The ventral side of the second and third pharyngeal arcs fuses to form the human body of the hyoid bone during the 4th week the gestation.

This report concentrates on the inferior component of the hyoid body whereby the omohyoid and sternohyoid muscle attach. One elongated body (15.9 mm) along this inferior edge was listed in the specimen.

Many researchers have investigated the sex dimorphism observed about the hyoid bone and the variation appears to it is in consistent throughout many measurements. These variations include angles of measurement indigenous the body to the greater and lesser tubercles, size of the horns, and also thickness the the body, amongst many others <1-3>. Through cataloging these variations, forensic pathologists have been maybe to use hyoid bone morphology through relatively good accuracy to do determinations pertained to identifying the deceased <3>. Provided the meaning of gift able to perform this, a relatively complicated categorization system has actually been arisen for various recognized shapes of the hyoid. Remarkably, it has been detailed that 60% the hyoid skeletal still perform not fit right into one that these generally described categories <4>.

Unfortunately, there are few studies that have actually analyzed the distance from the superior border to the inferior border that the body. A search of the literature has yielded just two studies, be separate by over a century, v metrics top top this measurement of the hyoid. In 1909, Parsons analyzed the hyoid bone indigenous 108 adult cadavers from male adults (53), female adult (28), and children (27). His results proved an average height of 1.2 centimeter for males (range: 1.0-1.6 cm), and also 1.0 cm for females (range: 0.9-1.2 cm) <5>. In 2012, a group of Japanese researchers analyzed 600 hyoid bones (310 males, 290 females) utilizing three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) imaging. Your data closely matched the of the 1909 study mirroring a mean elevation of 9.4 mm in males (range: 6.3-16.0 mm), and 7.8 mm in females (range: 3.0-8.8 mm) <6>. However, the exact morphology that the hyoid bone in these situations was no reported.

Finally, there room reported situations of ossification of the muscle that attach to the hyoid bone, e.g., traumatic and genetic myositis ossificans <7>. A evaluation of the literary works yielded a single case report ~ above traumatic myositis ossificans in the superior belly of the omohyoid. In this case, the ossification to be unilateral, palpable on physics examination, and plainly visible ~ above radiographs <8>.

Anatomical sport such as the one explained herein, can result in dorn level surgery as the typically positioned and sized hyoid bone is supplied by surgeons to estimate the C3 vertebral level <9-12>. Furthermore, as the anterior neck is often palpated during physical examination, bony variants such as the one defined here could lead to misdiagnosis or in ~ least, unnecessary testing.


The hyoid bone has both countless unique anatomical features and also clinical relevance in forensic pathology. Therefore, reports the hyoid bone variations are necessary to anatomists and also clinicians alike.

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