Departing indigenous the monarchical heritage of Britain, the starting fathers the the united States created a mechanism in i m sorry the American human being had the power and also responsibility to pick their leader. Write-up II, ar 1 the the U.S. Constitution develops the executive, management Branch that the U.S. Government. Under this brand-new order, George Washington, the an initial U.S. President, was elected in 1789. In ~ the time, just white males who owned property can vote, yet the 15th, 19th and 26th Amendments come the constitution have due to the fact that expanded the appropriate of suffrage to every citizens end 18. Following every 4 years, presidential campaigns and elections have evolved into a collection of fiercely fought, and sometimes controversial, contests, now played out in the 24-hour news cycle. The stories behind each election—some ending in landslide victories, others made decision by the narrowest of margins—provide a roadmap to the events of U.S.

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The an initial presidential election was organized on the first Wednesday of January in 1789. No one disputed the election of George Washington, yet he remained reluctant come run until the last minute, in part because he thought seeking the office would certainly be dishonorable. Only when Alexander Hamilton and others persuaded him that it would certainly be dishonorable to refuse did he agree to run.

The Constitution allowed each state come decide exactly how to select its presidential electors. In 1789, just Pennsylvania and Maryland organized elections because that this purpose; elsewhere, the state legislatures decided the electors. This an approach caused some troubles in new York, which was so divided in between Federalists who sustained the new Constitution and also Antifederalists that opposed it the the legislature failure to select either presidential electors or U.S. Senators.

Before the adoption of the Twelfth Amendment, there to be no different ballot for president and also vice president. Each elector cast two votes for president. The candidate through the largest variety of electoral votes winner the presidency, and also the runner-up ended up being vice president.

Most Federalists i agreeed that man Adams should be evil president. But Hamilton feared that if Adams to be the unanimous choice, the would end in a tie through Washington and also might even come to be president, an outcome that would certainly be extremely embarrassing for both Washington and also the brand-new electoral system. Hamilton therefore arranged the a variety of votes be deflected, so that Adams was elected by much less than half the number of Washington’s supposed unanimous vote. The last results were Washington, 69 electoral votes; Adams, 34; john Jay, nine; john Hancock, four and also others, 22.

1792: George Washington – unopposed

As in 1789, persuading George Washington to run was the major challenge in selecting a president in 1792. Washington complained that old age, sickness and also the increasing hostility the the Republican press toward his administration. The press assaults were symptomatic of the increasing split within the government between Federalists, that were coalescing approximately Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, and Republicans, forming roughly Secretary of State cutting board Jefferson. James Madison, amongst others, encouraged Washington to proceed as chairman by saying that just he can hold the federal government together.

Speculation then shifted come the angry presidency. Hamilton and also the Federalists supported the reelection of john Adams. Republicans favored new York governor George Clinton, but Federalists feared him partly because of a widespread id that his recent election to the governorship was fraudulent. In addition, the Federalists feared the Clinton would certainly belittle the prestige of the federal federal government by retaining his governorship while serving as vice president.

Adams won fairly easily with assistance from new England and the Mid-Atlantic states, except new York. Just electoral votes are tape-recorded here, because most states still walk not select presidential electors by well-known vote. Nor was there a separate vote for president and vice president until the Twelfth revised took impact in 1804. The outcomes were Washington, 132 electoral votes (unanimous); Adams, 77; Clinton, 50; Jefferson, four and Aaron Burr, one.

1796: man Adams vs. Cutting board Jefferson

The 1796 election, which take it place versus a elevator of significantly harsh partisanship in between Federalists and also Republicans, was the an initial contested presidential race.

The Republicans dubbed for an ext democratic practices and accused the Federalists of monarchism. The Federalists branded the republic “Jacobins” ~ Maximilien Robespierre’s faction in France. (The republic sympathized v revolutionary France, yet not necessarily with the Jacobins.) The republicans opposed john Jay’s recently negotiated accommodationist contract with great Britain, vice versa, the Federalists thought its terms stood for the only way to stop a perhaps ruinous war through Britain. Republic favored a decentralized agrarian republic; Federalists referred to as for the breakthrough of commerce and also industry.

State legislatures still made decision electors in most states, and also there was no different vote because that vice president. Each elector cast two votes because that president, through the runner-up ending up being vice president.

The Federalists nominated vice President man Adams and tried to entice southern support by running cutting board Pinckney of south Carolina because that the 2nd post. Cutting board Jefferson was the Republican standard-bearer, v Aaron Burr as his to run mate. Alexander Hamilton, always intriguing versus Adams, tried to throw some votes to Jefferson in bespeak to elect Pinckney president. Instead, Adams won with 71 votes; Jefferson came to be vice president, v 68; Pinckney came in 3rd with 59; Burr received only 30 and 48 votes walk to assorted other candidates.

1800: thomas Jefferson vs. John Adams

The definition of the 1800 choice lay in the fact that the entailed the an initial peaceful transfer of power between parties under the U.S. Constitution. Republican cutting board Jefferson prospered Federalist john Adams. This tranquil transfer emerged despite defects in the structure that brought about a breakdown of the electoral system.

During the campaign, Federalists attacked Jefferson together an un-Christian deist, tainted by his sympathy for the progressively bloody French Revolution. Republicans (1) criticize the Adams administration’s foreign, defense and internal defense policies; (2) opposed the Federalist marine buildup and the creation of a standing military under Alexander Hamilton; (3) sound a call for liberty of speech, Republican editors having been targeted because that prosecution under the Alien and Sedition Acts and also (4) denounced deficit safety by the federal federal government as a backhanded technique of taxation without representation.

Unfortunately, the device still provided no separate votes because that president and also vice president, and Republican managers failed to deflect votes from your vice-presidential candidate, Aaron Burr. Therefore, Jefferson and also Burr tied v 73 votes each; Adams got 65 votes and his vice-presidential candidate, Charles C. Pinckney, 64. Man Jay received one. This result threw the election right into the residence of Representatives, wherein each state had one vote, come be decided by the bulk of its delegation. Left come choose between Jefferson and also Burr, most Federalists sustained Burr. Burr because that his part disclaimed any type of intention to run for the presidency, but he never ever withdrew, which would certainly have ended the contest.

Although the republicans in the very same election had won a decisive majority of 65 come 39 in the House, choice of the president dropped to the outgoing House, which had a Federalist majority. But despite this majority, 2 state delegations split evenly, leading to one more deadlock between Burr and also Jefferson.

After the House cast 19 similar tie ballots top top February 11, 1801, governor James Monroe of Virginia assured Jefferson that if a usurpation to be attempted, the would call the Virginia Assembly right into session, implying that they would certainly discard any kind of such result. After six days the uncertainty, Federalists in the bound delegations the Vermont and also Maryland abstained, electing Jefferson, yet without providing him open up Federalist support.

1804: cutting board Jefferson vs. Charles Pinckney

The 1804 election was a landslide victory for the incumbent thomas Jefferson and also vice-presidential candidate George Clinton (Republicans) over the Federalist candidates, Charles C. Pinckney and Rufus King. The poll was 162-14. The election was the very first held under the Twelfth Amendment, which separated Electoral college balloting for president and also vice president.

The Federalists alienated many voters by refusing come commit their electors come any particular candidate prior to the election. Jefferson was likewise helped through the popular of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase and his palliation of federal spending. The repeal that the excise taxes on whiskey was especially popular in the West.

1808: James Madison vs. Charles Pinckney

Republican James Madison was elevated come the presidency in the election of 1808. Madison won 122 electoral votes actors to Federalist Charles C. Pinckney’s 47 votes cast. Vice president George Clinton obtained six electoral votes for president native his native new York, but easily beat Federalist Rufus King because that vice president, 113-47, with scattered vice-presidential votes for Madison, James Monroe and John Langdon of brand-new Hampshire. In the early on stages the the election campaign, Madison additionally faced challenges from within his very own party by Monroe and Clinton.

The main worry of the election was the Embargo action of 1807. The banning that exports had actually hurt merchants and other advertising interests, back ironically it encouraged domestic manufactures. These economic difficulties restored the Federalist opposition, specifically in trade-dependent brand-new England.

1812: James Madison vs. DeWitt Clinton

In the 1812 contest James Madison to be reelected chairman by the narrowest margin of any kind of election due to the fact that the Republican Party had come to power in 1800. He obtained 128 electoral votes come 89 for his Federalist foe DeWitt Clinton, the lieutenant branch of new York. Elbridge Gerry the Massachusetts won the evil presidency with 131 votes come Jared Ingersoll’s 86.

The battle of 1812, i beg your pardon had begun five month earlier, was the leading issue. Opposition come the battle was focused in the northeastern Federalist states. Clinton’s supporters also made an worry of Virginia’s practically unbroken regulate of the White House, which they charged favored farming states over commercial ones. Clintonians additionally accused Madison that slighting the defense the the new York frontier against the british in Canada.

In the Northeast, Madison brought only Pennsylvania and also Vermont, however Clinton received no votes southern of Maryland. The election proved to be the last one of definition for the Federalist Party, mainly owing to anti-British American nationalism created by the war.

1816: James Monroe vs. Rufus King

In this election, Republican James Monroe won the presidency through 183 electoral votes, transferring every state except Massachusetts, Connecticut and Delaware. Federalist Rufus King obtained the votes of the 34 Federalist electors. Daniel D. Tompkins of brand-new York was elected vice president v 183 electoral votes, his opposition scattered amongst several candidates.

After the bitterness partisanship that the Jefferson and also Madison administrations, Monroe came to symbolize the “Era of good Feelings.” Monroe to be not elected easily, however; he barely won the nomination in the Republican conference caucus end Secretary of battle William Crawford that Georgia. Numerous Republicans objected come the sequence of Virginia presidents and also believed Crawford a superior an option to Monroe. The caucus vote was 65-54. The narrowness that Monroe’s success was surprising due to the fact that Crawford had currently renounced the nomination, possibly in return because that a promise that Monroe’s future support.

In the general election, opposition come Monroe to be disorganized. The Hartford Convention the 1814 (growing out of opposition to the war of 1812) had actually discredited the Federalists outside their strongholds and also they did not put forth a candidate. To part extent, Republicans had siphoned off Federalist assistance with nationalist programs prefer the 2nd Bank that the united States.

1820: James Monroe – unopposed

During James Monroe’s an initial term, the country had endured an financial depression. In addition, the expansion of slavery right into the territories ended up being a political worry when Missouri sought admission as a servant state. Likewise causing controversy were can be fried Court decisions in the Dartmouth university case and McCulloch v. Maryland, which expanded the strength of Congress and also of private corporations in ~ the cost of the states. Yet despite these problems, Monroe faced no arranged opposition for reelection in 1820. The opposition party, the Federalists, ceased to exist.

Voters, as man Randolph put it, presented “the unanimity the indifference, and also not the approbation.” Monroe won by an electoral poll of 231-1. Wilhelm Plumer of new Hampshire, the one elector that voted against Monroe, did so since he assumed Monroe to be incompetent. He actors his ballot for john Quincy Adams. Later in the century, the fable arose that Plumer had actors his dissenting poll so that only George Washington would have the respect of unanimous election. Plumer never discussed Washington in his decided explaining his vote to the other brand-new Hampshire electors.

1824: john Quincy Adams vs. Henry Clay vs. Andrew Jackson vs. William Crawford

The Republican Party damaged apart in the 1824 election. A huge majority of the states now chose electors by renowned vote, and the people’s vote was considered sufficiently necessary to record. The nomination that candidates by congressional caucus was discredited. Teams in every state nominated candidates for the presidency, leading to a multiplicity that favorite child candidacies.

By the fall of 1824, four candidates remained in the running. Wilhelm Crawford that Georgia, the secretary the the treasury, had actually been the at an early stage front-runner, however severe disease hampered his candidacy. Secretary the State man Quincy Adams of Massachusetts had a brilliant document of federal government service, yet his Federalist background, his cosmopolitanism and also his cold new England manner price him support exterior his very own region. Henry Clay the Kentucky, the speaker of the home of Representatives, and also Andrew Jackson that Tennessee, that owed his popular to his 1815 victory over the British in ~ the fight of brand-new Orleans, to be the various other candidates.

With four candidates, none got a majority. Jackson got 99 electoral votes v 152,901 popular votes (42.34 percent); Adams, 84 electoral votes with 114,023 renowned votes (31.57 percent); Crawford, 41 electoral votes and also 47,217 well-known votes (13.08 percent) and also Clay, 37 electoral votes and 46,979 famous votes (13.01 percent). The selection of president therefore fell come the home of Representatives. Plenty of politicians assumed that residence Speaker Henry Clay had the strength to choose the next president yet not to selected himself. Clay threw his assistance to Adams, that was climate elected. When Adams subsequently called Clay secretary of state, the Jacksonians charged that the 2 men had actually made a “corrupt bargain.”

The Electoral College made decision John C. Calhoun together vice chairman by a majority of 182 votes.

1828: Andrew Jackson vs. Man Quincy Adams

Andrew Jackson winner the presidency in 1828 by a landslide, receiving a document 647,292 well-known votes (56 percent) come 507,730 (44 percent) for the incumbent john Quincy Adams. Man C. Calhoun winner the angry presidency through 171 electoral votes to 83 because that Richard Rush and seven for william Smith.

The development of two parties promoted popular attention in the election. Jackson’s party, sometimes dubbed the Democratic-Republicans or just Democrats, arisen the very first sophisticated nationwide network the party organizations. Local party teams sponsored parades, barbecues, tree plantings and other popular events designed to encourage Jackson and also the regional slate. The National-Republicans, the party the Adams and Henry Clay, lacked the local organizations of the Democrats, but they did have actually a clean platform: high tariffs, federal resources of roads, canals and other internal improvements, assist to residential manufactures and breakthrough of cultural institutions.

The 1828 election project was among the dirtiest in America’s Both parties spread false and exaggerated rumors around the opposition. Jackson guys charged that Adams acquired the presidency in 1824 with a “corrupt bargain” v Clay. And also they painted the incumbent president together a decadent aristocrat who had procured prostitute for the czar if serving together U.S. Minister to Russia and also spent taxpayer money top top “gambling” tools for the White residence (actually a chess collection and a billiard table).

The National-Republicans illustrated Jackson as a violent frontier ruffian, the son, part said, that a prostitute married to a mulatto. As soon as Jackson and his wife, Rachel, married, the pair believed the her first husband had obtained a divorce. After learning the divorce had actually not yet been do final, the couple held a second, precious wedding. Now the Adams men asserted Jackson to be a bigamist and also an adulterer. More justifiably, administration partisans wondered about Jackson’s occasionally violent self-control of the military in the war of 1812 and also the brutality that his invasion of Florida in the Seminole War. Ironically, Secretary the State Adams had defended Jackson at the moment of the Seminole War, taking benefit of Jackson’s unauthorized incursion to attain Florida for the United states from Spain.

1832: Andrew Jackson vs. Henry Clay vs. Wilhelm Wirt

Democratic-Republican Andrew Jackson to be reelected in 1832 through 688,242 famous votes (54.5 percent) to 473,462 (37.5 percent) for National-Republican Henry Clay and 101,051 (eight percent) because that Anti-Masonic candidate wilhelm Wirt. Jackson easily lugged the Electoral College v 219 votes. Clay received just 49, and Wirt winner the seven votes of Vermont. Martin van Buren winner the angry presidency through 189 votes against 97 for assorted other candidates.

The spoils mechanism of politics patronage, the tariff, and also federal capital of internal renovations were significant issues, yet the most vital was Jackson’s veto the the rechartering the the bank of the unified States. National-Republicans struck the veto, suggesting that the bank was essential to keep a secure currency and also economy. “King Andrew’s” veto, castle asserted, was an abuse of executive, management power. In defense of Jackson’s veto, Democratic-Republicans labeled the financial institution an aristocratic institution–a “monster.” suspiciously of banking and of paper money, Jacksonians protest the bank for providing special privileges to private investors at government expense and also charged the it cultivated British manage of the American economy.

For the an initial time in American politics, a third party, the Anti-Masons, challenged the two significant parties. Numerous politicians of note participated, consisting of Thaddeus Stevens, william H. Seward and Thurlow Weed. The Anti-Masonic Party created in reaction come the killing of william Morgan, a previous upstate new York Freemason. Allegedly, part Masons murdered Morgan when he endangered to publish several of the order’s secrets. The Anti-Masons protested Masonic secrecy. They feared a conspiracy to control American politics institutions, a fear fed by the truth that both the major party candidates, Jackson and also Clay, were prominent Masons.

The Anti-Masons convened the an initial national presidential nominating convention in Baltimore ~ above September 26, 1831. The various other parties soon adhered to suit, and also the convention changed the discredited caucus device of nomination.

1836: Martin valve Buren vs. Daniel Webster vs. Hugh White

The election of 1836 was mainly a referendum top top Andrew Jackson, but it additionally helped shape what is recognized as the second party system. The democracy nominated Vice president Martin van Buren to lead the ticket. His to run mate, Col. Richard M. Johnson, asserted to have killed Indian chef Tecumseh. (Johnson to be controversial since he live openly with a black color woman.)

Disdaining the arranged politics of the Democrats, the new Whig Party ran 3 candidates, each strong in a various region: Hugh White that Tennessee, senator Daniel Webster that Massachusetts and Gen. William Henry Harrison that Indiana. Besides endorsing interior improvements and a nationwide bank, the Whigs tried come tie democracy to abolitionism and also sectional tension, and also attacked Jackson for “acts the aggression and usurpation that power.” Democrats relied on Jackson’s popularity, do the efforts to maintain his coalition.

Van Buren winner the election with 764,198 popular votes, only 50.9 percent that the total, and also 170 electoral votes. Harrison led the Whigs v 73 electoral votes, White receiving 26 and Webster 14. Willie P. Mangum of south Carolina obtained his state’s 11 electoral votes. Johnson, that failed to success an electoral majority, was chosen vice chairman by the autonomous Senate.

1840: william Henry Harrison vs. Martin van Buren

Aware that Van Buren’s difficulties gave castle a an excellent chance for victory, the Whigs garbage the candidacy the Henry Clay, your most significant leader, because of his assistance for the unpopular 2nd Bank that the joined States. Instead, steal a web page from the democratic emphasis on Andrew Jackson’s armed forces exploits, they determined William Henry Harrison, a hero of early Indian wars and also the battle of 1812. The Whig vice-presidential nominee was man Tyler, a onetime Democrat that had damaged with Jackson over his veto of the bill rechartering the 2nd Bank.

Studiously avoiding divisive worries like the Bank and also internal improvements, the Whigs shown Harrison as living in a “log cabin” and also drinking “hard cider.” They supplied slogans like “Tippecanoe and Tyler too,” and also “Van, Van, Van/Van is a used-up man,” to stir voters. Harrison won by a renowned vote the 1,275,612 to 1,130,033, and also an electoral margin of 234 come 60. However the victory showed to it is in a hollow one due to the fact that Harrison died one month after ~ his inauguration. Tyler, his successor, would certainly not expropriate Whig economic doctrine, and the change in presidential national politics had tiny effect top top presidential policy.

1844: James K. Polk vs. Henry Clay vs. James Birney

The election of 1844 presented expansion and also slavery as crucial political issues and also contributed to westward and southern growth and also sectionalism. Southerners the both parties sought to annex Texas and expand slavery. Martin valve Buren angered southerly Democrats through opposing addition for that reason, and also the autonomous convention actors aside the ex-president and also front-runner because that the very first dark horse, Tennessee’s James K. Polk. After virtually silently breaking through Van Buren over Texas, Pennsylvania’s George M. Dallas to be nominated for vice chairman to appease valve Burenites, and also the party donate annexation and settling the Oregon boundary conflict with England. The abolitionist Liberty Party nominated Michigan’s James G. Birney. Make the efforts to protect against controversy, the Whigs nominated anti-annexationist Henry Clay the Kentucky and also Theodore Frelinghuysen of new Jersey. But, pressured by southerners, Clay endorsed addition even though he was concerned it might cause war with Mexico and also disunion, thereby shedding support amongst antislavery Whigs.

Enough brand-new Yorkers voted for Birney to throw 36 electoral votes and also the election to Polk, who won the Electoral college 170-105 and a slim well-known victory. John Tyler signed a joint congressional resolution admitting Texas, yet Polk sought Oregon and also then north Mexico in the Mexican-American War, aggravating stress and anxiety over slavery and also sectional balance and also leading come the damage of 1850.

1848: Zachary Taylor vs. Martin van Buren vs. Lewis Cass

The choice of 1848 underscored the significantly important function of slavery in nationwide politics. Autonomous president James K. Polk go not look for reelection. His party nominated city council Lewis Cass of Michigan, who created the principle of squatter, or popular, sovereignty (letting the inhabitants of a territory decide whether to permit slavery), with Gen. William O. Butler of Kentucky for vice president. Antislavery groups formed the Free-Soil Party, who platform promised to prohibit the spread out of slavery, and chose former president Martin van Buren of brand-new York for president and also Charles Francis Adams, the kid of President john Quincy Adams, that Massachusetts for vice president. The Whig nominee to be the Mexican war hero Gen. Zachary Taylor, a servant owner. His to run mate was Millard Fillmore, a member of new York’s proslavery Whig faction.

Democrats and Free-Soilers stressed their views top top slavery and also Whigs celebrated Taylor’s to win in the current war, although plenty of Whigs had actually opposed it. Because that his part, Taylor professed moderation top top slavery, and he and the Whigs to be successful. Taylor defeated Cass, 1,360,099 to 1,220,544 in well-known votes and 163 to 127 in electoral votes. Van Buren got 291,263 well-known votes and no electoral votes, however he attracted enough assistance away from Cass come swing brand-new York and also Massachusetts come Taylor, assuring the Whigs’ victory. Through the Taylor-Fillmore ticket elected, the forces had been set in motion for the occasions surrounding the compromise of 1850. Yet Van Buren’s campaign was a stepping-stone towards the development of the Republican Party in the 1850s, also committed to the rule of “Free Soil.”

1852: Franklin Pierce vs. Winfield Scott vs. Man Pitale

The 1852 election rang a fatality knell because that the Whig Party. Both parties separation over their nominee and the worry of slavery. After ~ forty-nine ballots that jockeying amongst Senator Lewis Cass the Michigan, previous secretary of state James Buchanan the Pennsylvania and Senator Stephen A. Douglas that Illinois, the democrats nominated a compromise choice, Franklin Pierce of new Hampshire, a previous congressman and senator, through Senator william R. King of Alabama as his to run mate. The Whigs garbage Millard Fillmore, who had come to be president once Taylor passed away in 1850, and Secretary that State Daniel Webster and instead nominated Gen. Winfield Scott the Virginia, v Senator william A. Graham of brand-new Jersey for vice president. As soon as Scott endorsed the party platform, which authorized of the Fugitive Slave law of 1850, Free-Soil Whigs bolted. Castle nominated Senator man P. Hale of brand-new Hampshire because that president and former congressman George Washington Julian the Indiana because that vice president. Southerly Whigs were suspicious of Scott, who they witnessed as a tool of antislavery senator william H. Seward of brand-new York.

Democratic unity, Whig disunity and also Scott’s political ineptitude merged to selected Pierce. “Young Hickory of the Granite Hills” outpolled “Old Fuss and also Feathers” in the electoral college, 254 come 42, and also in the famous vote, 1,601,474 come 1,386,578.

1856: James Buchanan vs. Millard Fillmore vs. Man C. Freemont

The 1856 choice was waged by brand-new political coalitions and also was the an initial to directly challenge the problem of slavery. The violence that complied with the Kansas-Nebraska Act ruined the old politics system and past formulas of compromises. The Whig Party to be dead. Know-Nothings nominated Millard Fillmore come head their nativist American Party and also chose Andrew J. Donelson for vice president. The democratic Party, depicting itself as the nationwide party, nominated James Buchanan because that president and also John C. Breckinridge for vice president. That is platform sustained the Kansas-Nebraska Act and also noninterference v slavery. This election observed the development of a new, sectional party written of ex-Whigs, Free-Soil Democrats and antislavery groups. The Republican Party protest the extension of slavery and promised a free-labor culture with expanded methods for white workers. The nominated armed forces hero man C. Frémont of California because that president and also William L. Dayton because that vice president.

The campaign centered approximately “Bleeding Kansas.” The battle over the principle of well-known sovereignty sharpened north fears about the spread out of slavery and southern worries about northern interference. The physical attack by Congressman call S. Brooks of southern Carolina on senator Charles Sumnerof Massachusetts ~ above the floor that the Senate heightened northern resentment of southerly aggressiveness.

Although the autonomous candidate, Buchanan, won v 174 electoral votes and 1,838,169 votes, the separated opposition gained much more popular votes. The Republican Party recorded 1,335,264 votes and 114 in the Electoral College, and also the American Party got 874,534 popular and also 8 electoral votes. The Republicans’ impressive showing–carrying eleven of sixteen totally free states and 45 percent of northern ballots–left the southern feeling breakable to assaults on slavery and fearful the Republicans would soon catch the government.

1860: Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen Douglas vs. John C. Breckingridge vs. John Bell

At the Republican convention, front-runner william H. Seward of new York challenged insurmountable obstacles: conservatives feared his radical statements about an “irrepressible conflict” over slavery and also a “higher law” 보다 the Constitution, and also radicals questioned his ethical scruples. Hoping to carry moderate states like Illinois and Pennsylvania, the party nominated Abraham Lincoln the Illinois for president and also Senator Hannibal Hamlin of Maine because that vice president. The Republican platform dubbed for a ban on enslavement in the territories, internal improvements, a homestead act, a Pacific railroad and a tariff.

The democratic convention, i beg your pardon met at Charleston, might not agree ~ above a candidate, and also most that the southerly delegates bolted. Reconvening in Baltimore, the convention nominated city council Stephen A. Douglas that Illinois because that president and also Senator Herschel Johnson the Georgia because that vice president. Southern Democrats climate met separately and also chose angry President john Breckinridge that Kentucky and Senator Joseph lane of Oregon as their candidates. Former Whigs and also Know-Nothings formed the constitutional Union Party, nominating Senator john Bell of Tennessee and also Edward Everett of Massachusetts. Their just platform was “the Constitution as it is and the Union together it is.”

By carrying virtually the entire North, Lincoln won in the Electoral College through 180 votes to 72 for Breckinridge, 39 because that Bell and 12 for Douglas. Lincoln won a famous plurality of around 40 percent, leading the popular vote v 1,766,452 to 1,376,957 because that Douglas, 849,781 for Breckinridge and also 588,879 for Bell. Through the choice of a sectional northern candidate, the Deep south seceded native the Union, adhered to within a few months by several states of the upper South.

1864: Abraham Lincoln vs. George B. McClellan

The challenge in the middle of the Civil war pitted chairman Abraham Lincoln against Democrat George B. McClellan, the general who had actually commanded the army of the Potomac until his indecision and delays resulted in Lincoln to eliminate him. The vice-presidential candidates to be Andrew Johnson, Tennessee’s army governor who had refused to acknowledge his state’s secession, and also Representative George Pendleton that Ohio. In ~ first, Radical Republicans, fearing defeat, talked of ousting Lincoln in favor of the an ext ardently antislavery secretary that the treasury Salmon P. Chase, or Generals man C. Frémont or Benjamin F. Butler. However in the end they fell in behind the president.

The republicans attracted democratic support by running together the Union party and putting Johnson, a pro-war Democrat, on the ticket. McClellan repudiated the autonomous platform’s contact for peace, but he assaulted Lincoln’s managing of the war.

Lincoln won in a landslide, owing partly to a plan of letting soldiers go home to vote. But the military successes of Generals Ulysses S. Approve in Virginia and William T. Sherman in the Deep south were probably much more important. He got 2,206,938 votes come McClellan’s 1,803,787. The electoral vote was 212 to 21. Democracy did far better in state elections.

Lincoln would not live to finish his 2nd term, however. Abraham Lincoln to be assassinated by man Wilkes Booth, that fatally shooting him inside Ford’s theatre on April 14, 1865. The President passed away of his wounds the next day. Vice chairman Andrew Johnson served out the remainder the Lincoln’s term.

1868: Ulysses S. Approve vs. Horace Seymour

In this contest, Republican Ulysses S. Give opposed Horace Seymour, the democratic governor of brand-new York. Their corresponding running mates were Speaker of the home Schuyler Colfax the Indiana and also Francis P. Blair that Missouri. The Democrats struck the Republican administration of Reconstruction and also black suffrage. Grant, a middle on Reconstruction, was accused of army despotism and also anti-Semitism, and Colfax of nativism and feasible corruption. Besides criticizing Seymour’s assistance for inflationary greenback currency and Blair’s considered drunkenness and also his opposition come Reconstruction, the Republicans doubted the wartime patriotism of every Democrats.

Grant won the renowned vote, 3,012,833 come 2,703,249 and also carried the Electoral university by 214 to 80. Seymour lugged only eight states, but ran reasonably well in many others, specifically in the South. The election proved that in spite of his popularity as a armed forces hero, approve was no invincible. His margin of win came from newly enfranchised southern freedmen, who supplied him with around 450,000 votes. The Democrats had actually named a weak ticket and attacked Reconstruction quite than pursuing financial issues, but revealed surprising strength.

1872: Ulysses S. Provide vs. Horace Greeley

President Ulysses S. Give ran versus New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley in 1872. Greeley top an uncomfortable coalition that Democrats and also liberal Republicans. Despite Greeley’s of attacking Democrats, the party endorsed him for the sake of expediency. The vice-presidential candidates were Republican senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts and also Governor B. Gratz Brown the Missouri.

Disaffected through Grant administration corruption and also the dispute over Reconstruction, Greeley ran ~ above a platform of civil service reform, laissez-faire liberalism and also an finish to Reconstruction. The Republicans came out because that civil service reform and also the security of black color rights. They assaulted Greeley’s inconsistent record and his support of utopian socialism and Sylvester Graham’s dietary restrictions. Cutting board Nast’s anti-Greeley cartoons in Harper’s Weekly attracted wide attention.

Grant won the century’s greatest Republican well-known majority, 3,597,132 to 2,834,125. The Electoral College vote was 286 to 66. Actually, the an outcome was much more anti-Greeley 보다 pro-Grant.

1876: Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Samuel Tilden

In 1876 the Republican Party nominated Rutherford B. Hayes that Ohio for president and William A. Wheeler of new York because that vice president. The autonomous candidates were Samuel J. Tilden of new York for president and Thomas A. Hendricks of Indiana because that vice president. Number of minor parties, consisting of the ban Party and also the Greenback Party, likewise ran candidates.

The nation was farming weary of restoration policies, which kept federal troops stationed in several southern states. Moreover, the Grant management was tainted by countless scandals, which caused disaffection because that the party among voters. In 1874 the house of Representatives had gone Democratic. Political change was in the air.

Samuel Tilden winner the popular vote, receiving 4,284,020 votes come 4,036,572 for Hayes. In the Electoral College, Tilden was likewise ahead 184 come 165; both parties claimed the staying 20 votes. The Democrats essential only one more vote to catch the presidency, however the Republicans necessary all 20 challenged electoral votes. Nineteen the them came from southern Carolina, Louisiana and Florida–states the the republicans still controlled. Protesting democratic treatment of black voters, republicans insisted the Hayes had lugged those states however that democratic electors had actually voted because that Tilden.

Two sets of choice returns existed–one indigenous the Democrats, one from the Republicans. Congress had to determine the authenticity the the questioned returns. Can not to decide, legislators created a fifteen-member commission written of ten congressmen and also five can be fried Court justices. The commission was an alleged to be nonpartisan, but ultimately it consisted of eight Republicans and seven Democrats. The last decision to be to be calculation by the commission unless both the Senate and the residence rejected it. The commission embraced the Republican poll in every state. The residence disagreed, yet the Senate concurred, and also Hayes and also Wheeler were declared president and vice president.

In the consequences of the commission’s decision, the federal troops that remained in the southern were withdrawn, and also southern leaders made faint promises concerning the legal rights of the 4 million African-Americans life in the region.

1880: James A. Garfield vs. Winfield Scott Hancock

The choice of 1880 was as rich in partisan wrangling as it was lacking in significant issues. Factional rivalry in the Republican Party between new York councilor Roscoe Conkling’s Stalwarts and Half-Breed followers of James G. Blaine led to a convention in which no Blaine nor the Stalwart choice, former president Ulysses S. Grant, might gain the nomination. On the thirty-sixth ballot, a deteriorate choice, councilor James A. Garfield that Ohio, to be nominated. Stalwart Chester A. Arthur of brand-new York was favored as his running mate to mollify Conkling’s followers. The democracy selected civil War general Winfield Scott Hancock, a man of usually abilities, because he was much less controversial than party leaders choose Samuel Tilden, Senator thomas Bayard or speak of the house Samuel Randall. Previous Indiana congressman william English offered as Hancock’s running mate.

In their platforms, both parties equivocated ~ above the money issue and unenthusiastically endorsed civil service reform while sustaining generous pensions for veterans and the exclusion of Chinese immigrants. The Republicans dubbed for safety tariffs; the democrats favored tariffs “for revenue only.”

In the campaign, republicans “waved the bloody shirt,” ridiculed Hancock because that referring come the tariff together a “local question,” and also quite probably purchased their small but crucial victory in Indiana. Democrats attacked Garfield’s ties come the Crédit Mobilier scandal and circulated the forged “Morey Letter” that “proved” he was soft ~ above Chinese exclusion. Turnout to be high on election day (78.4 percent), yet the result was one of the closestly in Garfield lugged the Electoral College, 214-155, yet his popular majority was much less than 10,000 (4,454,416 to Hancock’s 4,444,952). Greenback-Labor candidate James Weaver garnered 308,578 votes. Exterior the southern and also border states, Hancock carried only new Jersey, Nevada, and also 5 of 6 California electoral votes.

1884: Grover Cleveland vs. James G. Blaine

This race, marred by an adverse campaigning and corruption, ended in the choice of the an initial Democratic president because 1856. The Republicans split into three camps: dissident reformers, referred to as the Mugwumps, that were protest to party and government graft; Stalwarts, Ulysses S. Provide supporters that had battled civil organization reform and also Half-Breeds, moderate reformers and high-tariff males loyal to the party. The republic nominated James G. Blaine that Maine, a charismatic former congressman and secretary that state well-known for his protectionism, but of skeptical honesty because of his function in the scandal that the “Mulligan letters” in the 1870s. His to run mate was among his opponents, Senator man Logan that Illinois. This provided Democrats a possibility to surname a ticket renowned in new York, wherein Stalwart senator Roscoe Conkling had actually a long-running feud with Blaine, and they took advantage of it. Castle chose brand-new York branch Grover Cleveland, a budget conservative and also civil company reformer, because that president and Senator thomas Hendricks of Indiana because that vice president.

The project was vicious. The Republican reformers and also the traditionally Republican New York Times opposed Blaine. When it ended up being known that Cleveland, a bachelor, had fathered a boy out of wedlock, republicans chanted “Ma! Ma! Where’s mine pa? gone to the White House, Ha! Ha! Ha!” but the furor passed away down as soon as Cleveland recognized his paternity and showed that he added to the child’s support. Blaine alienated a huge bloc the votes by no repudiating the Reverend Samuel Burchard, who, through Blaine in attendance, called the democracy the party the “Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion.” Cleveland defeated Blaine by a very close margin, 4,911,017 come 4,848,334; the poll in the Electoral College was 219 come 182, with brand-new York’s 36 votes transforming the tide.

1888: Benjamin Harrison vs. Grover Cleveland

In 1888 the democratic Party nominated president Grover Cleveland and chose Allen G. Thurman the Ohio together his running mate, instead of Vice President thomas Hendricks who had died in office.

After eight ballots, the Republican Party decided Benjamin Harrison, previous senator native Indiana and also the nephew of President wilhelm Henry Harrison. Levi P. Morton of brand-new York to be the vice-presidential nominee.

In the popular vote because that president, Cleveland won through 5,540,050 votes to Harrison’s 5,444,337. Yet Harrison received an ext votes in the Electoral College, 233 to Cleveland’s 168, and was thus elected. The republic carried new York, president Cleveland’s politics base.

The campaign of 1888 helped establish the Republicans as the party that high tariffs, which most Democrats, heavily supported by southern farmers, opposed. But memories the the civil War likewise figured heavily in the election.

Northern veterans, organized in the Grand military of the Republic, had actually been upset by Cleveland’s veto that pension legislation and his decision come return Confederate fight flags..

1892: Grover Cleveland vs. Benjamin Harrison vs. James B. Weaver

The Republican party in 1892 nominated president Benjamin Harrison and replaced Vice president Levi P. Morton with Whitelaw Reid of brand-new York. The Democrats likewise selected the familiar: former president Grover Cleveland and also Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois. The Populist, or People’s party, fielding candidates because that the first time, nominated Gen. James B. Weaver of Iowa and also James G. Ar of Virginia.

The key difference between the Republicans and also the democracy in 1892 was their place on the tariff. The Republicans supported ever-increasing rates, conversely, a considerable wing the the autonomous party moved through a platform plank the demanded income taxes for revenue only. The Populists referred to as for federal government ownership that the railroads and monetary reform, confronting these issues in a means the two major parties walk not.

Cleveland, avenging his loss of 1888, winner the presidency, receiving 5,554,414 popular votes come Harrison’s 5,190,801. Weaver and also the Populists received 1,027,329. In the electoral university Cleveland, moving the swing says of new York, brand-new Jersey, Connecticut, and Indiana, garnered 277 votes come Harrison’s 145.

1896: william McKinley vs. Wilhelm Jennings Bryan vs. Thomas Watson vs. Man Palmer

In 1896 the Republican nominee for president was Representative wilhelm McKinley the Ohio, a “sound money” man and a strong supporter of high tariffs. His running mate was Garret A. Hobart of brand-new Jersey. The party’s platform stressed follow to the yellow standard; west delegates bolted, creating the silver Republican party.

The autonomous party platform was crucial of president Grover Cleveland and also endorsed the coinage of silver- at a ratio of 16 to one. William Jennings Bryan, a previous congressman native Nebraska, speak at the convention in assistance of the platform, proclaiming, “You shall not crucify mankind ~ above a cross of gold.” The enthusiastic response of the convention to Bryan’s cross of gold speech secured his organize on the presidential nomination. His to run mate to be Arthur Sewall that Maine.

The Populists sustained Bryan yet nominated cutting board Watson of Georgia because that vice president. Silver- Republicans supported the autonomous nominee, and also the newly developed Gold democrats nominated john M. Palmer that Illinois for president and Simon B. Buckner the Kentucky because that vice president.

Bryan toured the country, stressing his support for silver- coinage as a systems for financially disadvantaged American farmers and also calling because that a be sure of credit and also regulation of the railroads. McKinley remained at home and underscored the Republican commitment to the yellow standard and protectionism. The Republican campaign, greatly financed by that company interests, successfully shown Bryan and the Populists as radicals.

William McKinley won, receiving 7,102,246 renowned votes come Bryan’s 6,502,925. The electoral university votes to be 271 to 176. Bryan did no carry any kind of northern commercial states, and also the farming states of Iowa, Minnesota, and also North Dakota likewise went Republican.

1900: william McKinley vs. Wilhelm Jennings Bryan

In 1900 the republic nominated President william McKinley. Due to the fact that Vice president Garret A. Hobart had died in office, governor Theodore Roosevelt of new York received the vice-presidential nomination. The autonomous candidates were william Jennings Bryan the Nebraska for president and also Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois for vice president.

Bryan campaigned as an anti-imperialist, denouncing the country’s authorized in the Philippines. Carrying over six hundred speeches in twenty-four states, he additionally persisted in his crusade because that the free coinage the silver. McKinley walk not proactively campaign, relying on the rebirth of the economy that had emerged during his first term.

In the choice McKinley won broad support from business interests. Bryan to be unable to increase his agrarian basic to include northern labor, which authorized of McKinley’s commitment come protective tariffs. International policy questions proved unimportant to most voters. McKinley to be elected, receiving 7,219,530 famous votes to Bryan’s 6,358,071. In the Electoral college the poll was 292 come 155.

1904: Theodore Roosevelt vs. Alton Parker

This race confirmed the popularity of Theodore Roosevelt, that had become president as soon as McKinley to be assassinated, and also moved Democrats far from bimetallism and also toward progressivism.

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Some Republicans considered Roosevelt too liberal and flirted with nominating Marcus A. Hanna of Ohio, who had been william McKinley’s closest political adviser. However the party quickly nominated Roosevelt for a term in his own right and Senator Charles Fairbanks of Indiana because that vice president. Democrats divided again over gold and also silver, but this time gold won out. The party nominated conservative, colorless new York Court that Appeals referee Alton Parker because that president and also former councilor Henry Davis that West Virginia for vice president.