Proper food handling and storage can prevent most foodborne illnesses. In order because that pathogens to flourish in food, certain conditions should be present. By managing the environment and conditions, also if potentially harmful bacteria are current in the unprepared or raw food, they will certainly not have the ability to survive, grow, and multiply, leading to illness.
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There space six factors that influence bacterial growth, which can be described by the mnemonic FATTOM:FoodAcidTemperatureTimeOxygenMoisture
Each of these components contributes come bacterial expansion in the adhering to ways:Food: Bacteria require food to survive. Because that this reason, moist, protein-rich foodstuffs are an excellent potential sources of bacter growth.Acid: Bacteria do not prosper in acidic environments. This is why acidic foodstuffs like lemon juice and also vinegar perform not assistance the expansion of bacteria and can be provided as preservativesTemperature: most bacteria will prosper rapidly in between 4°C and also 60°C (40°F and 140°F). This is referred to as the danger region (see the section listed below for much more information on the danger zone).Time: Bacteria need time come multiply. When little numbers that bacteria room present, the danger is normally low, yet extended time v the right problems will allow the bacteria come multiply and increase the risk of contaminationOxygen: There space two types of bacteria. Aerobic bacteria require oxygen come grow, so will not multiply in an oxygen-free environment such together a vacuum-packaged container. Anaerobic bacteria will only grow in oxygen-free environments. Food that has actually been improperly processed and also then stored in ~ room temperature have the right to be at danger from anaerobic bacteria. A usual example is a product include harmful Clostridium botulinum (botulism-causing) bacteria that has been improperly processed during canning, and also then is spend without any kind of further cooking or reheating.Moisture: Bacteria need moisture to survive and also will flourish rapidly in moist foods. This is why dry and also salted foods are at reduced risk of gift hazardous.Identifying potentially Hazardous foods items (PHFs)
Foods that have the FATTOM conditions are considered potentially hazardous foodstuffs (PHFs). PHFs are those foods that are taken into consideration perishable. The is, they will spoil or “go bad” if left in ~ room temperature. PHFs are foodstuffs that support the growth or survival of disease-causing bacteria (pathogens) or foods items that may be contaminated by pathogens.
Generally, a food is a PHF if the is:Of animal origin such together meat, milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, poultry (or if the contains any kind of of these products)Of plant beginning (vegetables, beans, fruit, etc.) that has actually been heat-treated or cookedAny the the raw sprouts (bean, alfalfa, radish, etc.)Any cooked starch (rice, pasta, etc.)Any kind of soya protein (soya milk, tofu, etc.)
Table 2 identifies common foods as either PHF or non-PHF.
|Chicken, beef, pork, and also other meats||Beef jerky|
|Pastries filled through meat, cheese, or cream||Bread|
|Cooked rice||Uncooked rice|
|Fried onions||Raw onions|
|Opened cans of meat, vegetables, etc.||Unopened cans of meat, vegetables, etc. (as lengthy as they room not significant with “Keep Refrigerated”)|
|Coffee creamers||Cooking oil|
|Fresh garlic in oil||Fresh garlic|
|Fresh or cooked eggs||Powdered eggs|
|Dry soup mix with water added||Dry soup mix|
One that the most important factors to consider when dealing with food appropriately is temperature. Table 3 perform the many temperatures to be aware of when managing food.
|60°||140°||Most pathogenic bacteria space destroyed. Keep hot foods above this temperature.|
|20°||68°||Food should be cooled native 60°C to 20°C (140°F come 68°F) in ~ two hours or less|
|4°||40°||Food need to be cooled from 20°C to 4°C (68°F come 40°F) within 4 hours or less|
|–18°||0°||Frozen food have to be stored at −18°C (0°F) or below|
The range of temperature indigenous 4°C and 60°C (40°F and also 140°F) is well-known as the danger zone, or the variety at which most pathogenic bacteria will grow and also multiply.Time-temperature control of PHFs
Pathogen growth is regulated by a time-temperature relationship. To kill micro-organisms, food must be hosted at a adequate temperature for a enough time. Food preparation is a scheduled process in which each of a series of continuous temperature combinations have the right to be equally effective. For example, when food preparation a beef roast, the microbial lethality achieved at 121 minute after it has actually reached an interior temperature of 54°C (130°F) is the same as if it were cooked for 3 minute after it had reached 63°C (145°F).
Table 4 present the minimum time-temperature needs to store food safe. (Other time-temperature regimens might be perfect if it have the right to be demonstrated, with scientific data, the the regimen outcomes in a for sure food.)
|Refrigeration||Cold food storage, all foods.||4°C (40°F) or less|
|Freezing||Frozen food storage, all foods.||−18°C (0°F) or less|
|Freezing||Parasite reduction in fish intended to be served raw, such as sushi and also sashimi||−20°C (−4°F) for 7 days or −35°C (−31°F) in a blast freezer because that 15 hours|
|Cooking||Food mixture containing poultry, eggs, meat, fish, or various other potentially hazardous foods||Internal temperature of 74°C (165°F) because that at least 15 seconds|
|Cooking||Rare roast beef||Internal temperature of 54°C come 60°C (130°F to 140°F)|
|Cooking||Medium roast beef||Internal temperature the 60°C come 65°C (140°F come 150°F)|
|Cooking||Pork, lamb, veal, beef (medium-well)||Internal temperature the 65°C come 69°C (150°F come 158°F)|
|Cooking||Pork, lamb, veal, beef (well done)||Internal temperature of 71°C (160°F)|
|Cooking||Poultry||Internal temperature the 74°C (165°F) because that 15 seconds|
|Cooking||Stuffing in poultry||74°C (165°F)|
|Cooking||Ground meat (Includes chopped, ground, flaked, or minced beef, pork, or fish)||70°C (158°F)|
|Cooking||Eggs<1>||63°C (145°F) for 15 seconds|
|Holding||Hot foods||60°C (140°F)|
|Cooling||All foods||60°C to 20°C (140°F to 68°F) within 2 hours and 20°C to 4°C (68°F come 40°F) in ~ 4 hours|
|Reheating||All foods||74°C (165°F) for at least 15 seconds|
Figure 1 illustrates the peak 10 improper food-handling methods and also the portion of foodborne illnesses lock cause.Figure 2. Top 10 reasons of foodborne illness. Chart developed by go2HR under CC BY.
This section describes each food-handling exercise outlined in the height 10 list and also the means to prevent each problem.
1. Not correct cooling
Many human being think that when a food has been correctly cooked, every disease-causing biology (pathogens) have been killed. This is not true. Some pathogens can form heat-resistant spores, which can survive cooking temperatures. When the food starts cooling down and enters the hazard zone, these spores start to grow and multiply. If the food spends too lot time in the danger zone, the pathogens will rise in number to a point where the food will certainly make civilization sick. The is why the cooling process is crucial. Cooking food need to be cooled native 60°C come 20°C (140°F to 70°F) in two hrs or less, and also then native 20°C come 4°C (70°F come 40°F) in 4 hours or less.
Even in contemporary walk-in coolers, huge cuts the meat will not cool under properly. Neither will whole poultry. Even huge pots (4 L/1 gal. Or more) that soup, stews, gravy, etc., have the right to take a job or an ext to cool come 4°C (40°F). However, you deserve to cool these foods items down easily by making use of one or more of the adhering to methods relying on the form of food gift cooled:Place the food in shallow pans (with the food no deeper 보다 5 cm/2 in.) and also put the pans in the cooler.When the food is cooling, execute not strictly cover. Law so only seals in the heat.Do no stack the shallow cooling pans during the cooling step. This will defeat the purpose of shallow panning by preventing cold wait from reaching the food. You might need come add much more shelves to your cooler.Cut huge cuts the meat or entirety poultry into smaller or diluent portions. Then location these portions right into shallow pans for cooling.Use cooling wands or cooling sticks come cool foods items quickly.Use quick cooling equipment such together walk-in coolers v wire shelving and great air flow. Home-style refrigerators or reach-ins execute not cool food well.Stir the food in a container placed in an ice-water bath.Use containers that aid heat transfer, such as stainless stole or aluminum. Plastic does not transfer warm well.Use ice together an ingredient (e.g., in stews or soups).For huge pots of cook desserts (e.g., custard), division it right into serving sizes and also then cool.
2. Breakthrough preparation
Advance preparation is the reason of plenty of food-poisoning outbreaks, usually since food has been improperly cooled. Often, foods that are all set well before serving spend too lot time in the hazard zone. This may happen for one or an ext of the complying with reasons:The food is left the end at room temperature too long.The food is no heated or reheated effectively (to a high enough temperature), or no cooled properly.The food is brought in and also out of the danger zone too many times (e.g., cooked, hot held, cooled, reheated, warm held, cooled, reheated again).
To prevent difficulties of development preparation:Try to prepare all foods for same-day use and as nearby to offer time as possible.To prevent external contamination of foodstuffs prepared in advance, cover lock tightly ~ they have been effectively cooled.Reheat leftovers just once. If leftovers space not spend after gift reheated, litter them out.For foods prepared and also held refrigerated in the cooler for more than 24 hours, mark the date of preparation and a “serve by” date. Generally, PHFs must be thrown out if not provided within 3 days from day they to be made.If you have to prepare foods items in advance, be certain you properly cool and also refrigerate them.
3. Infected person
Many people carry pathogens somewhere on or in your bodies without discovering it—in their gut, in your nose, on their hands, in their mouth, and in other warm, moist places. World who space carrying pathogens frequently have no outward indications of illness. However, world with symptoms of disease (diarrhea, fever, vomiting, jaundice, ill throat with a fever, hand infections, etc.) room much an ext likely to spread pathogens come food.
Another trouble is that pathogens can be current in the cooked and cooled food that, if given sufficient time, can still grow. This pathogens main point slowly yet they can ultimately reach numbers where they deserve to make world sick. This way that foods that are prepared improperly, countless days prior to serving, yet stored effectively the whole time deserve to make world sick.
Some pathogens are more dangerous than others (e.g., salmonella, E. Coli, campylobacter). Also if they are only current in short numbers, they deserve to make people an extremely sick. A food handler that is moving these type of pathogens can easily spread lock to foods items – normally from their hands. Ready-to-eat food is extra dangerous. Ready-to-eat food it s okay no further food preparation after being prepared, so any kind of pathogens will not be killed or managed by cooking.
To avoid problems:Make sure all food handlers to wash their hands properly after any kind of job that can dirty your hands (e.g., utilizing the toilet, eating, handling raw meats, blowing your nose, smoking).Food handlers v infected cut on their hands or eight (including sores, burns, lesions, etc.) need to not manage food or tools unless the cuts are properly covered (e.g., waterproof bandage extended with a latex gloves or finger cot).When using gloves or finger cots, food handlers need to still wash their hands. Together well, gloves or cots should be changed if they space soiled, have actually a hole, and also at the finish of each day.Food handlers with infection symptoms need to not manage utensils or food and also should be sent home.Where possible, avoid direct hand call with food – especially ready-to-eat foodstuffs (e.g., usage plastic utensils plastic or latex gloves).
4. Inadequate reheating for hot holding
Many restaurants prepare part of food selection items in breakthrough or use leftovers in their hot hold systems the following day. In both cases, the foodstuffs travel with the danger zone as soon as they are cooled for storage and also again when they space reheated.
Foods that are hot held before serving are specifically vulnerable come pathogens. In enhancement to travelling with the danger zone twice, also in effectively operating hot host units, the food is close to the temperature the will allow pathogens to grow.
To prevent problems:Do not use hot host units to reheat food. They space not designed for this purpose. Instead, quickly reheat to 74°C (165°F) (and host the food at the temperature for at the very least 15 seconds before putting it in the hot organize unit. This will certainly kill any kind of pathogens that may have actually grown throughout the cool-down step and the reheat step.If using direct heat (stove top, oven, etc.), the temperature of the reheated food should reach at the very least 74°C (165°F) because that at least 15 secs within 2 hours. Store a thermometer handy to inspect the temperature of the food.If making use of a microwave, rotate or row the food at least once during the reheat step, as microwaves warm unevenly. Together well, the food have to be heated to at least 74°C (165°F) and then stand extended for two minutes after ~ reheating before including to the hot host unit. The snapping and also crackling sounds coming from food being reheated in a microwave perform not median the food is hot.
5. Improper warm holding
Hot host units room meant to save hot foods at 60°C (140°F) or hotter. In ~ or above this temperature, pathogens will not grow. However, a wrong in making use of the hot organize unit can an outcome in foods being organized in the super peril zone – between 20°C and 49°C (70°F and also 120°F), temperatures at i beg your pardon pathogens grow really quickly.
To prevent problems:Make sure the hot host unit is working appropriately (e.g., heating facets are not burnt out; water is not also low in steam tables; the thermostat is properly collection so food stays at 60°C (140°F) or hotter) examine it everyday with a thermometer.Put only currently hot (74°C/165°F) foods into the hot organize unit.Preheat the hot organize unit to at least 60°C (140°F) before you start putting hot foodstuffs into it.Do not usage the hot hold unit to reheat cold foods. That is not designed for or capable of act this rapidly.After the lunch or dinner rush, carry out not turn off the warmth in the hot organize unit and then leaving the food there to cool. This is very dangerous. As soon as you perform this, the food does no cool down. The stays warm in the super hazard zone and lets pathogens prosper quickly. Foodstuffs in hot hold units need to be taken out of the systems after the meal time is over and also cooled appropriate away.
6. Contaminated life food or ingredient
We recognize that many raw foodstuffs often contain pathogens, yet specific foods are regularly served raw. While part people think these foods served raw are “good because that you,” the fact is the they have constantly been attention to serve or eat raw. Some examples include:Raw oysters offered in the shellRaw eggs in particular recipes (e.g., Caesar salad, eggnog do from life eggs)Rare hamburgerSushi/sashimiSteak tartare
These foods have caused many food-poisoning outbreaks. Always remember: you can not tell if a food has pathogens just by look, taste, or smell.
To prevent problems:Buy all your foodstuffs or ingredients from authorized suppliers.If available, buy foods or ingredients from providers who also have food security plans for their operations.Where possible, usage processed or pasteurized options (e.g., pasteurized fluid eggs).Never offer these types of foods to high-risk client (e.g., seniors, young children, people in poor health, human being in hospitals or nursing homes).
7. Unsafe source
Foods native approved sources are less likely come contain high levels of pathogens or other creates of contamination. Approved resources are those suppliers that space inspected because that cleanliness and also safety by a federal government food inspector. Foods supplied native unreliable or disreputable sources, while gift cheaper, may contain high level of pathogens the can reason many food-poisoning outbreaks.
Fly-by-night carriers (trunk sales) regularly do not care if the product is for sure to offer to you, but approved suppliers do! together well, countless fly-by-night carriers have derived their product illegal (e.g., close up door shellfish fisheries, rustled cattle, poached game and also fish) and often carry out not have the equipment to appropriately process, handle, store, and also transport the food safely.
Of particular concern is seafood native unapproved sources. Seafood, particularly shellfish, indigenous unapproved sources can be greatly contaminated through pathogens or poisons if they have actually been harvest from closed areas.
To prevent problems:Buy her food and also ingredients native approved resources only. If you are not certain a supplier has been approved, call your local environmental health officer. That or she can discover out for you.Do no take the opportunity of leading to a food-poisoning outbreak by make the efforts to save a couple of dollars. Remember, your reputation is on the line.
8. Usage of leftovers
Using leftovers has been the reason of many outbreaks the food poisoning due to the fact that of improper cooling and also reheating (of “hot” leftovers). Leftovers that space intended to it is in served warm pass with the danger zone twice (during the early stage cooling of the warm food and when reheating). Those leftovers intended come be served without reheating, or together an ingredient in other foodstuffs (e.g., sandwich filler), go v the hazard zone during cooling and then, as soon as being prepared and portioned, frequently stay in the peril zone for an additional long period. The moment in the hazard zone add to up unless the food is easily cooled and then conveniently reheated (if being served hot), or maintained cold until serving (if not being offered hot).
Contamination can likewise occur through leftover foods items when they are stored in the cooler. Improperly save on computer leftovers have the right to accidentally it is in contaminated through raw foods (e.g., blood dripping from a greater shelf).
To avoid problems:Reheat leftovers only once. Throw out any kind of leftovers the have currently been reheated once.Do not mix leftover foodstuffs with fresh foods.Be sure to follow the ideal cooling and also reheating actions when managing leftovers. This are vital control points.Cool leftovers in uncovered containers separate from any type of raw foods. ~ they are cooled, cover castle tightly.
You have the right to expect details foods come contain pathogens, especially raw meat, life poultry, and raw seafood. Use extreme caution as soon as you carry these foodstuffs into your kitchen. Cross-contamination happens as soon as something the can cause illness (pathogens or chemicals) is by chance put into a food whereby not formerly found. This deserve to include, for example, pathogens from life meats gaining into ready-to-eat foods like deli meats. That can also include nuts (which some world are an extremely allergic to) getting into a food the does not generally have nuts (e.g., tomato sauce).
To prevent problems:Use different cutting boards, different cleaning cloths, knives/utensils, sinks, ready areas, etc., for raw and for ready-to-eat foods. Otherwise, wash all of these items with detergent and also sanitize them v bleach in between use.Use different storage areas for raw and also ready-to-eat foods. Always store ready-to-eat foodstuffs on different shelves and above raw foods. Keep dry foods over wet foods.Prepare ready-to-eat foods items at the start of the day before the raw foods are prepared.After managing raw foods, always wash your hands properly before doing anything else.Keep clean everything or cleaning cloths in a container of fresh bleach solution (30 mL/1 oz. The bleach every 4 L/1 gal. That water) when not in use.Use clean utensils, no your hands, to manage cooked or ready-to-eat foods.If a customer indicates a food allergy, follow every the same actions to protect against cross contamination and also use separate or fresh sanitized tools and also utensils come prepare food because that the individual through the allergy.
10. Insufficient cooking
Proper cooking is among the best way of making certain your operation does not cause a food-poisoning outbreak. Proper cooking kills every pathogens (except spores) or at least reduces their numbers to a suggest where they can not make world sick. Inadequate food preparation is frequently done by accident: for example, food preparation still-frozen poultry or meat; attempting to chef a stuffed bird using the very same time and temperature as an unstuffed bird; making use of an inexperienced cook.
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To protect against problems:Don’t count on cooking times alone. Inspect the internal temperature of the food being cooked.For large cuts the meat or big batches the food, examine the temperature in numerous spots.Be extra mindful when food preparation partially frozen foods. There can be cold point out in the food that room not appropriately cooked. The normal food preparation time will need to be increased.When grilling or frying meat, chef until the juices operation clear. Cooked fish until it flakes easily. Do thin, no thick, hamburgers.Image descriptions
Figure 1 picture description:
At 100°C (or 212°F), water boils. Over 74°C (or 165°F), bacteria die, return spores and toxins might survive. Food the is gift cooked or reheated must hit 74°C (or 165°F). You deserve to hold hot food for business at 60°C (or 140°F). In between 4°C and 60°C (or 40°F and also 140°F) is the “Danger Zone.” save food the end of this temperature variety because bacteria will multiply rapidly. Between 0°C and 4°C (or 32°F and also 40°F), most bacteria will survive but will no multiply quickly. Water freezes at 0°C (or 32°F). Between 0°C and −18°C (or 0°F and 32°F), most bacterial will survive but not grow. Frozen food is stored at −18°C (or 0°F).