How do we sort things?

When us sort parts in our shop or garage, we regularly classify them in state of usual properties. One container might hold every the screws (possibly sub-divided by size and type). Another container would certainly be for nails. Maybe there is a collection of drawers for pipes parts.

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When you obtain finished, friend could also have a arsenal of points that nothing nicely fit a category. You define them in regards to what they space not. They room not electrical components, or sprinkler heads because that the yard, or components for the car. These parts may have some typical properties, yet are a range of items.


In the chemical world, this “spare parts” would be taken into consideration non-metals, loosely characterized as not having the properties of metals. A nonmetal is an element that is generally a negative conductor of heat and also electricity. Most properties that nonmetals room the opposite of metals. There is a more comprehensive variation in properties among the nonmetals than amongst the metals. Nonmetals exist in every three states of matter. The majority are gases, such as nitrogen and also oxygen. Bromine is a liquid. A few are solids, such together carbon and sulfur. In the heavy state, nonmetals are brittle , definition that they will certainly shatter if struck through a hammer. The solids room not lustrous. Melt points are usually much lower than those the metals. The green facets in the table below are non-metals.



Non-metals have a wide selection of uses. Sulfur can be employed in gunpowder, fireworks, and matches come facilitate ignition (see Figure 1). This element is likewise widely provided as an insecticide, a fumigant, or a method of remove certain species of fungus. An essential role for sulfur is the to produce of rubber for tires and other materials. Very first discovered in 1839 by Charles Goodyear, the process of vulcanization makes the rubber much more flexible and also elastic and also being an ext resistant to changes in temperature. A major use the sulfur is for the preparation of sulfur-containing link such as sulfuric acid.

Bromine is a versatile compound, used largely in produce of flame-retardant materials, especially important because that children’s clothes (see Figure 2). For therapy of water in swimming pools and hot tubs, bromine is beginning to replace chlorine together a disinfectant since of its greater effectiveness. When incorporated into compounds, bromine atom play necessary roles in pharmaceuticals for therapy of pain, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease.


Figure 1. Sulfur.


Figure 2. Bromine.


Helium is one of the countless non-metals the is a gas. Various other non-metal gases incorporate hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine, and also all the group eighteen noble (or inert) gases. Helium is chemically non-reactive, so the is valuable for applications such as balloons (see Figure 3) and also lasers, where non-flammability is incredibly important. Fluid helium exist at really low temperature and also can be used to cool superconducting magnets because that imaging studies (MRI, magnetic resonance imaging). Leaks in vessels and also many varieties of high-vacuum apparatus can be detected using helium. Inhaling helium alters the speed of sound, creating a higher pitch in her voice. This is definitely an unsafe practice and can cause physical harm and also death.


Figure 3. Blimp.


Summary

Non-metals are generally negative conductors the heat and electricity.Properties the non-metals room usually the opposite of properties of metalsNon-metals deserve to be solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature depending on the element.Sulfur, bromine, and also helium are common non-metals.

Practice

Select two non-metals indigenous the regular table that have actually not to be mentioned. Locate details to prize the following questions:

What are the physical properties the this non-metal?List three existing uses for this element.

Review

What space the properties of non-metals?List the says of issue in i beg your pardon non-metals can exist and give one instance of each stateWhat room the physics properties and uses of sulfur?What room the physical properties and uses that bromine?What space the physical properties and also uses the helium?

Glossary

non-metal: An facet that is normally a negative conductor of heat and also electricity.

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brittle: Shatters easily.