Not every molecules i m sorry contain hydrogen are capable of donating protons. Because that example, methane (CH4) and other hydrocarbons display no acidic nature at all. Carbon is not extremely electronegative, and so electron thickness is reasonably evenly mutual in a C―H bond, and the hydrogen atom is i can not qualify to depart there is no at least one electron. Even when it is bonded to very electronegative atoms prefer oxygen or fluorine, a hydrogen atom is not always strongly acidic.

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Example \(\PageIndex1\) : Proton Transfer

Acetic acid has the projection formula

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There are a big number of weak acids, yet fortunately they loss into a few well-defined categories:

Carboxylic acids

These compounds have actually the general formula RCOOH. All react with water in the same way as acetic acid . The stamin of carboxylic acids is dependence on the electronegative strength of the atom in the "R" group. Take into consideration the link F3COOH and H3COOH. Fluorine is the most electronegative element, when hydrogen is equivalent to carbon in electronegativity. Thus, the fluorines pull electron density away from the carboxyl group. This clears electron density from the acidic oxygen-hydrogen bond, i m sorry weakens it. This weaker bond way that the hydrogen deserve to be removed an ext easily, which create a more powerful acid. This concept can be applied to any R group. The an ext electronegative the R group, the more powerful the carboxylic acid will certainly be.

Weak oxyacids

These have actually the same general formula HnXOm as strong oxyacids, yet the variety of hydrogens is equal to or one much less than the variety of oxygens. For a weak oxyacid, in various other words, m ≤ n + 1. Some examples are:


Some that the weak oxyacids, H2CO3 for example, are very unstable and cannot it is in separated in pure form from aqueous solution.

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Other molecule containing acidic hydrogen atoms

Hydrogen fluoride (HF) has actually a very strong bond and also does no donate the proton as readily as various other hydrogen halides. Various other molecules in this group are hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and also hydrogen cyanide (HCN). In the latter case, also though H is external inspection to C, the electronegative N atom pulls some electron density away, and the HCN molecule is a really weak proton donor.

Hydrated cations

Cations, particularly those of fee +3 or more or of the change metals, space surrounded carefully by 4 to 6 water molecule in aqueous solution. An example is Cr(H2O)63+, presented in number \(\PageIndex1\). The confident charge that the metal ion pulls electron thickness away from the bordering water molecules, weakening the host of the oxygen atoms because that the hydrogen atoms. The latter can consequently be an ext easily donated as protons: