Ionic Bonding and also Electron Transfer

An ionic bond results from the carry of an electron from a steel atom come a non-metal atom.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds room formed in between cations and anions.A cation is developed when a metal ion loses a valence electron while an anion is formed when a non-metal profit a valence electron. Lock both accomplish a more stable digital configuration v this exchange.Ionic solids kind crystalline lattices, or repeating fads of atoms, v high melting points, and also are typically soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: one ionic link which disappear in H2O, make the resulting solution qualified of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The propensity of an atom to attract electrons come itself.cation: A positively charged ion.anion: A negatively fee ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a form of chemical bond in i beg your pardon valence electron are lost from one atom and also gained by another. This exchange outcomes in a much more stable, noble gas digital configuration for both atom involved. One ionic link is based upon attractive electrostatic forces in between two ion of the opposite charge.

Cations and also Anions

Ionic binding involve a cation and an anion. The bond is created when an atom, commonly a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and becomes a positive ion, or cation. One more atom, commonly a non-metal, is able to obtain the electron(s) to become a an unfavorable ion, or anion.

One instance of one ionic bond is the formation of sodium fluoride, NaF, indigenous a salt atom and also a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the salt atom loses its solitary valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has actually just enough an are to accept it. The ions developed are oppositely charged and are attracted to one another due come electrostatic forces.


Formation of NaF: an electron is transferred from Na come F. The result Na+ and also F– ions room electrically attracted to every other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds kind lattices, space crystalline solids under regular conditions, and have high melting points. Many of these solids space soluble in H2O and conduct electrical energy when dissolved. The ability to conduct power in equipment is why this substances are called electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a good example that this form of compound.

Ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds. Both types an outcome in the stable electronic states linked with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons room shared between the two atoms. All ionic bonds have actually some covalent character, yet the larger the difference in electronegativity in between the two atoms, the better the ionic personality of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen explains how ionic solids kind when cations and anions room attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice power is a measure up of the bond strength in one ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the determinants that impact it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice energy is characterized as the energy required to separate a mole of an ionic solid right into gaseous ions.Lattice energy cannot be measured empirically, but it deserve to be calculated utilizing electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main determinants that add to the size of the lattice power are the charge and also radius that the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A procedure which releases heat into that is surroundings.lattice energy: The amount of power released upon development of a crystalline ionic heavy from gas ions.

Definition that Lattice Energy

Lattice power is an estimate of the bond toughness in ionic compounds. The is defined as the warm of development for ion of opposite charge in the gas phase to incorporate into an ionic solid. As an example, the lattice power of sodium chloride, NaCl, is the energy released once gaseous Na+ and also Cl– ions come with each other to type a lattice of alternative ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The an unfavorable sign of the power is indicative of one exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be believed of as the power required to different a mole of an ionic solid right into the gaseous kind of its ion (that is, the reverse of the reaction presented above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ions (Na+) and chloride(Cl–) ions, shown in purple and also green respectively, alternative in the crystal lattice of solid NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice energy can be believed of as the energy required to different a mole of an ionic solid right into the gaseous type of its ions (that is, the turning back of the reaction presented above).

Lattice power cannot be determined experimentally due to the challenge in isolating gas ions. The energy value have the right to be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it have the right to be calculation theoretically through an electrostatic check of the decision structure.

Factors influence Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and also Lande presented the complying with model because that lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which depends on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge number of the anion; e is the elementary fee of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a properties of the compressibility that the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of free space; and also r0 is the street to the closest ion.

This model emphasizes two main factors that add to the lattice energy of one ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and also the radius, or size, the the ions. The impact of those determinants is:

as the fee of the ion increases, the lattice power increasesas the size of the ions increases, the lattice power decreases

Lattice energies are additionally important in predicting the solubility of ionic solids in H2O. Ionic compounds with smaller sized lattice energies often tend to be more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe charge on the cations and anions in an ionic compound can be figured out by the loss or obtain of valence electrons crucial in bespeak to accomplish stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The variety of cations and anions that are linked in an ionic compound is the simplest proportion of totality integers that deserve to be linked to reach electric neutrality.The cation precedes the anion in both the written type and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any kind of of the elements of team 18 the the regular table, which space monatomic and, through very restricted exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net charge of zero, i beg your pardon occurs as soon as an atom or molecule/compound has no excess or deficit that electrons.empirical formula: The easiest whole-number proportion between facets in a formula of a compound.polyatomic ion: an ion composed of number of atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic bond is created through the move of one or more valence electrons, frequently from a metal to a non-metal, i beg your pardon produces a cation and also an anion that are bound together by one attractive electrostatic force. Top top a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, such as salt chloride (NaCl), kind a crystalline lattice and also are solids at typical temperatures and pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: salt chloride decision lattice


The fee on the cations and also anions is determined by the number of electrons compelled to attain stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic composition is then identified by the necessity that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to incorporate magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to get an ionic compound, we first note the digital configurations of this atoms (valence level in suggested in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In bespeak to achieve noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom requirements to lose its 2 valence electrons, if the bromine atom, which has 7 valence electrons, calls for one added electron to to fill its outer shell. Therefore, for the resulting link to it is in neutral, two bromine anions must incorporate with one magnesium cation to type magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any ratio the 2 bromine atom to 1 magnesium atom will meet the two demands above, the formula because that ionic link is typically presented together the empirical formula, or the easiest whole-number proportion of atom with confident integers.

Note that the cation always precedes the anion both in written kind and in formulas. In the created form, when the cation name is generally the exact same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is adjusted to –ide, as in the situation of sodium chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, the suffix deserve to vary, but is frequently either –ate or –ite,as in the instances of sodium phosphate and calcium nitrite, depending upon the identification of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and also F– combine to form LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– incorporate to form CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and also O2- integrate to type FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and also S2- combine to kind Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and SO42- integrate to form Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and PO43- incorporate to kind (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and also ClO2– combine to kind KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented together the finish transfer the valence electrons, typically from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron density remains shared in between the ingredient atoms, an interpretation all bonds have some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature the a shortcut is established by the family member electronegativities the the atom involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent bond that has a partial ionic character to it, as a result of the difference in electronegativity in between the 2 bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure up of the propensity of an atom to entice electrons to itself.covalent character: The partial share of electrons in between atoms that have actually an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical compound are typically classified through the bonds in between constituent atoms. There room multiple kinds of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and also metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are normally presented together the finish loss or gain of one or an ext valence electrons from a steel to a nonmetal, bring about cations and also anions that are hosted together through attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The formation of one ionic bond in between lithium and also fluorine to kind LiF.


Example that a polar covalent bond: once a carbon atom creates a bond with fluorine, lock share a pair of electrons. However, due to the fact that fluorine is much more highly electronegative than carbon, it attractive that shared electron pair closer come itself and also thus create an electrical dipole. The small letter greek delta written above the atom is used to indicate the presence of partial charges. This shortcut is thought about to have attributes of both covalent and ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond between these atom is more complex than this design illustrates. The bond developed between any type of two atoms is not a completely ionic bond. All bonding interactions have actually some covalent character since the electron density remains shared between the atoms. The level of ionic versus covalent character of a link is established by the difference in electronegativity between the constituent atoms. The bigger the difference, the much more ionic the nature that the bond. In the traditional presentation, bonds space designated as ionic when the ionic aspect is higher than the covalent facet of the bond. Binding that autumn in in between the 2 extremes, having actually both ionic and covalent character, room classified as polar covalent bonds. Together bonds space thought of as consisting the partially charged hopeful and negative poles.

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Though ionic and also covalent character stand for points follow me a continuum, these designations room frequently valuable in understanding and also comparing the macroscopic nature of ionic and also covalent compounds. Because that example, ionic compounds typically have higher boiling and melting points, and they are also usually an ext soluble in water 보다 covalent compounds.