The activity of steels Classifying Metals based on Activity
Predicting the Product of Main group Metal reactions

The task ofMetals

The major difference in between metals is the ease through whichthey experience rebab.netical reactions. The aspects toward the bottomleft corner of the regular table are the metals that space themost active in the feeling of being the many reactive.Lithium, sodium, and also potassium every react through water, for example.The price of this reaction rises as we go down this column,however, due to the fact that these facets become more active as they becomemore metallic.

You are watching: In the periodic table the most reactive metals are found

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Classifying MetalsBased ~ above Activity

The steels are often split into four classes on the communication oftheir activity, as displayed in the table below.

Common Metals separated into great on theBasis of their Activity


Class ns Metals: The energetic Metals
Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs (Group IA)
Ca, Sr, Ba (Group IIA)
Class II Metals: The Less energetic Metals
Mg, Al, Zn, Mn
Class III Metals: The structure Metals
Cr, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu
Class IV Metals: The Coinage Metals
Ag, Au, Pt, Hg

The most active metals room so reactive the they readilycombine with the O2 and also H2O vapor in theatmosphere and are therefore stored under an inert liquid, suchas mineral oil. These metals are uncovered exclusively in teams IAand IIA of the regular table.

Metals in the second class room slightly less active. Theydon"t react through water in ~ room temperature, however they reactrapidly with acids.

The third class contains metals such together chromium, iron, tin,and lead, i beg your pardon react only with solid acids. It also containseven less active metals such together copper, which only dissolves whentreated with acids that deserve to oxidize the metal.

Metals in the fourth class are therefore unreactive they areessentially inert in ~ room temperature. These metals are best formaking jewelry or coins because they execute not react with the vastmajority that the substances through which lock come into dailycontact. As a result, they are often called the "coinagemetals."

Predicting the Productof Main group Metal reactions

The product of plenty of reactions between main group metals andother elements can it is in predicted from the electron configurationsof the elements.

Example: think about the reaction in between sodium and also chlorine toform salt chloride. It takes an ext energy to eliminate an electronfrom a salt atom to form an Na+ ion than we get backwhen this electron is added to a chlorine atom to type a Cl-ion. As soon as these ions space formed, however, the pressure of attractionbetween these ion liberates enough energy to make the followingreaction exothermic.


Na(s) + 1/2 Cl2(g) " width="17" height="9" sgi_fullpath="/disk2/rebab.netistry/genrebab.net/public_html/topicreview/bp/ch9/graphics/rarrow.gif"> NaCl(s)
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Ho = -411.3 kJ/mol

The net result of this reaction is to transfer one electronfrom a neutral salt atom come a neutral chlorine atom to form Na+and Cl- ion that have actually filled-shell configurations.

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Potassium and also hydrogen have the following electronconfigurations.


K: 4s1 H: 1s1

When these facets react, an electron needs to be transferredfrom one aspect to the other. We have the right to decide which facet shouldlose one electron by comparing the first ionization energy forpotassium (418.8 kJ/mol) v that because that hydrogen (1312.0 kJ/mol).

Potassium is much much more likely to shed anelectron in this reaction, which method that hydrogen benefit anelectron to kind K+ and H- ions.

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Practice difficulty 1:

Write a balanced equation because that the complying with reaction.

Li(s) + O2(s) " width="17" height="9" sgi_fullpath="/disk2/rebab.netistry/genrebab.net/public_html/topicreview/bp/ch9/graphics/rarrow.gif">