Log the end KINETIC energy OF ASTEROID impacts ON planet

Kinetic power (From The Sciences, sixth ed., by Trefil and also Hazen)

Think around a cannonball flying through the air. As soon as it hits a wood target, the ball exerts a pressure on the fibers in the wood, splintering and also pushing lock apart and also creating a hole. Work has to be excellent to make the hole; fibers need to be moved aside, which method that a pressure must be exerted end the distance they move. As soon as the cannonball access time the wood, it does work, and also so a cannonball in flight plainly has the ability to perform work—that is, it has actually energy—because of its motion. This power of motion is what we speak to kinetic energy.

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You deserve to find numerous examples of kinetic energy in nature. A whale relocating through water, a bird flying, and also a predator recording its food all have actually kinetic energy. So execute a speeding car, a flying Frisbee, a fall leaf, and also anything else that is moving.

Our intuition tells us that two factors govern the quantity of kinetic energy consisted of in any kind of moving object. First, heavier objects the are relocating have much more kinetic energy than lighter ones: a bowling ball traveling 10 m/s (a really fast sprint) dead a lot more kinetic energy than a golf ball traveling at the exact same speed. In fact, kinetic energy is straight proportional come mass: if you dual the mass, climate you twin the kinetic energy.

Second, the faster something is moving, the better the pressure it is capable of exerting and also the greater power it possesses. A high-speed collision reasons much more damage 보다 a fender bender in a parking lot. It turns out the an object’s kinetic energy increases as the square that its speed. A car moving 40 mph has four times as much kinetic power as one relocating 20 mph, while at 60 mph a auto carries nine times as much kinetic energy as at 20 mph. Thus a modest increase in rate can cause a huge increase in kinetic energy.

These concepts are merged in the equation because that kinetic energy.

In words: Kinetic power equals the massive of the relocating object time the square of the object’s speed (v2).

In equation form: kinetic power (joules) = 1/2 x massive (kg) x velocity2 (m/s)

In symbols: KE = 1/2 x m x v2

Examples: Bowling Balls and Baseballs What is the kinetic energy of a 4-kg (about 8-lb) bowling round rolling under a bowling lane at 10 m/s (about 22 mph)?

Compare this energy with that of a 250-gram (about half-a-pound) baseball traveling 50 m/s (almost 110 mph). I m sorry object would certainly hurt an ext if that hit girlfriend (i.e., i m sorry object has the better kinetic energy)?

Reasoning: We have to substitute numbers into the equation because that kinetic energy.

Solution: for the 4-kg bowling ball traveling in ~ 10 m/s:

kinetic power (joules) = 1/2 x fixed (kg) x 2

=1/2 x 4 kg x (10 m/s)2 = 1/2 x 4 kg x 100m2/s2 = 200 kg-m2/s2.

Note that: 200 kg-m2/s2 = 200 (kg-m/s2) x m = 200 N x m = 200 joules

For the 250-g baseball traveling at 50 m/s:

kinetic power (joules) = 1/2 x massive (kg) x 2

A gram is a thousandth the a kilogram, for this reason 250 g = 0.25 kg:

kinetic power (joules) = 1/2 x 0.25 kg x 2500 m2/s2 = 312.5 kg-m2/s2 = 312.5 joules

Even though the bowling sphere is much much more massive than the baseball, a hard-hit baseball carries an ext kinetic power than a usual bowling ball since of the high speed.


Asteroid effects on Earth:

everything in the solar device goes approximately the Sun. This paths about the sunlight are called orbits. An orbit is a vulnerable balance in between the forward motion of the orbiting body and also the gravitational attraction between the Sun and the orbiting body.

Because the the gravitational attraction between and amongst all the orbiting body in the solar system, no 2 orbits are the same. These little differences in orbit carry out not affect huge planets an extremely much, but small bodies orbiting the sun - prefer asteroids - have the right to be strong affected. Asteroids - packed relatively close come one one more in the asteroid belt - have the right to collide through one another or graze previous each other as your orbits shift over time. This may an outcome in an asteroid bumping or bouncing out of Its ahead orbit and an altering into a different orbit the is referred to as "Earth-crossing." The diagram below shows a usual Earth-crossing orbit because that an asteroid. The sun is displayed in red, the planet in green, and also the asteroid in yellow. Note - This diagram and also the object sizes room NOT in ideal scale.


Also, in this figure, objects like Mercury, Venus, Mars, and also the asteroids space not contained for simplicity.

As you have the right to see, together the Earth and also the asteroid go around the Sun, there is some chance that they may be in the same place at the same time one day and thus one energetic collision might take place.

The usual velocity of an asteroid in one Earth-crossing orbit and also in the vicinity of planet is about 20 km/sec. The kinetic power equation says that KE = 1/2 m x v2. Squaring the velocity renders a big number prefer 20 km/sec much, much larger.

We are going to think about what occurred in Alabama during the period of dinosaurs (specifically around 83 million year ago) once an asteroid about 380 m in diameter struck main Alabama. This event occurred about 20 kilometres north of Montgomery, Alabama, near the town of Wetumpka. You need to go to this link to read much more about this event before continuing this laboratory: Click Here

When you have finished analysis this on-line short article at the Encyclopedia that Alabama web site, you will certainly be ready to execute the data collection activity in her lab book.

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