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In renowned legend, a vampire is a creature, frequently fanged, that preys ~ above humans, usually by consuming your blood. Vampires have actually been featured in folklore and also fiction that various cultures for numerous years, predominantly in Europe, although belief in them has actually waned in modern times.


A characteristic central to the vampire legend is the usage of human being blood or other significance (such together bodily fluids or psychic energy). Vampires are additionally depicted as possessing sharp teeth or fangs with which to facilitate this task. In most depictions vampires are “undead”—that is to say, having actually been somehow revitalized after death.


Creatures through vampiric qualities have showed up at the very least as far ago as old Greece, whereby stories were told that creatures that attacked people in your sleep and drained your bodily fluids. Story of wade corpses that drank the blood of the living and spread plague flourished in middle ages Europe in times of disease.


Many cultures have long believed in the extraordinary powers of garlic: from old Egypt come Romania, garlic has actually been offered as a herbal insect repellent, a herbal antibiotic, and as protection against other preternatural evils. Modern belief in garlic’s curative powers against vampires likely originates from these much more ancient beliefs.


Though no the an initial literary depiction of vampires, Bram Stoker’s Dracula, released in 1897, is arguably the most necessary work of vampire fiction. This story of a Transylvanian count, who uses his mythological abilities to cause havoc in England, inspired numerous works thereafter. In the 20th century ann Rice’s novel Interview with the Vampire, released in 1976, notably presented the world to vampires the were brooding and also self-loathing and squabbled choose humans.


vampire, additionally spelled vampyre, in well-known legend, a creature, often fanged, the preys top top humans, typically by consuming their blood. Vampires have actually been featured in folklore and fiction that various societies for hundreds of years, predominantly in Europe, although belief in them has waned in contemporary times.

Characteristics

Because there is a long history of go corpses and also bloodsucking ghouls in folklore, it is difficult to pin down a distinct set of attributes consistently attributed only to vampires. Central to vampire myth, however, is the intake of person blood or other significance (such together bodily fluids or psychic energy), followed very closely by the possession that sharp this or fangs with which to facilitate this task. In most depictions, vampires space “undead”—that is to say, having actually been somehow revived after death—and countless are stated to climb nightly native their tombs or coffins, often necessarily comprise their native soil. Vampires are commonly said to it is in of pale skin and selection in appearance from grotesque come preternaturally beautiful, depending upon the tale. An additional frequently cited physical characteristic is the i can not qualify to cast a reflection or shadow, which regularly translates right into an i can not qualify to be photographed or videotaped on film.

A human may come to be a vampire in a selection of ways, the most usual of i beg your pardon is to be bitten by a vampire. Various other methods incorporate sorcery, committing suicide, contagion, or having actually a cat jump end a who corpse. Some people thought that babies born v teeth or top top Christmas or in between Christmas and also Epiphany to be predisposed to coming to be vampires. While vampires usually perform not die of condition or various other normal human afflictions, and they room indeed regularly said to have actually faster-than-normal heal capabilities, there are various techniques for your destruction. The most renowned of those include a wooden stake v the heart, fire, decapitation, and exposure come sunlight. Vampires room often shown as being repelled by garlic, to run water, or Christian implements such together crucifixes and also holy water. In part stories vampires may get in a home only if they have been invited, and in others they might be distracted through the scattering of objects such as seeds or grains that they room compelled to count, thereby enabling potential victim to escape.

History


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Creatures through vampiric qualities have showed up at least as far earlier as ancient Greece, whereby stories were told that creatures that assaulted people in their sleep and also drained your bodily fluids. Tales of walking corpses the drank the blood that the living and spread plague prospered in middle ages Europe in time of disease, and people lacking a modern understanding that infectious disease came to believe that those who came to be vampires preyed an initial upon their own families. Research from the 20th and also 21st centuries has actually posited that characteristics connected with vampires have the right to be traced back to certain diseases such together porphyria, which makes one perceptible to sunlight; tuberculosis, which causes wasting; pellagra, a disease that thins the skin; and also rabies, which reasons biting and also general sensitivities that might lead come repulsion by light or garlic.


Vampire myths were especially popular in eastern Europe, and also the word vampire most likely originates from that region. Digging increase the bodies of doubt vampires was exercised in numerous cultures throughout Europe, and also it is thought that the natural attributes of decomposition—such together receding gums and also the appearance of farming hair and fingernails—reinforced the id that corpses to be in fact proceeding some path of life after ~ death. Likewise possibly contributing to this belief was the pronouncement of death for people who were not dead. Due to the fact that of the border of clinical diagnosis at the time, civilization who were really ill, or periodically even really drunk, and also in a coma or in shock were believed dead and later “miraculously” recovered—sometimes as well late to prevent their burial. Belief in vampires caused such rituals together staking corpses v the heart prior to they to be buried. In some cultures the dead were buried facedown to stop them from finding their means out of their graves.

The modern incarnation that vampire myth appears to have stemmed mainly from Gothic European literature of the 18th and 19th centuries, around the time vampire hysteria was peaking in Europe. Vampiric figures showed up in 18th-century poetry, such as Heinrich respectable Ossenfelder’s “Der Vampyr” (1748), around a look at vampiric narrator that seduces an innocent maiden. Vampire poems began showing up in English about the turn of the 19th century, such as man Stagg’s “The Vampyre” (1810) and Lord Byron’s The Giaour (1813). The an initial prose vampire story published in English is thought to be man Polidori’s “The Vampyre” (1819), about a mysterious aristocrat called Lord Ruthven that seduces young women just to drain their blood and also disappear. Those works and others influenced subsequent material for the stage. Later crucial vampire stories encompass the serial Varney, the Vampire; or, The Feast that Blood (1845–47) and also “The secret Stranger” (1853), which room cited as feasible early influences for Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1897), and Théophile Gautier’s “La Morte amoureuse” (1836; “The Dead Lover”) and also Sheridan Le Fanu’s Carmilla (1871–72), which established the vampire femme fatale.

Dracula is may be the most crucial work of vampire fiction. The tale of the Transylvanian count who offers supernatural abilities, including mind control and shape-shifting, to food upon chaste victims inspired numerous works thereafter. Countless popular vampire characteristics—such as methods of survival and also destruction, vampires as aristocracy, and also even vampires being of eastern European origin—were solidified in this renowned novel and especially with its 1931 movie adaptation starring Hungarian-born gibbs Bela Lugosi. The novel itself is believed by some to have actually been motivated in component by the devilish acts the the 15th-century prince Vlad III Dracula of Transylvania, also known together “the Impaler,” and also Countess Elizabeth Báthory, who was believed to have murdered dozens of young women during the 16th and 17th centuries in order to bathe in or perhaps drink their blood so as to preserve her very own vitality.

In the 20th century vampires began to turn from being shown as predominantly animalistic creatures and also instead presented a broader range of human characteristics. Ray Bradbury discover the forgiveness portrayal that what deserve to be believed of as “monsters,” including vampires, in “Homecoming” (1946), a story about a “normal” boy through a household of fantastical creatures. The famous American television soap opera Dark Shadows (1966–71) featured a lovelorn vampire, Barnabas Collins. In 1975 Fred Saberhagen published The Dracula Tape, a retelling the Stoker’s story from the misunderstood villain’s point of view. Vampire fiction gone into a brand-new era, however, through the forgiveness portrayal by ann Rice in she novel Interview through the Vampire (1976). Rice’s publication introduced the civilization to vampires the were brooding and self-loathing and squabbled favor humans. When Rice’s vampires were much more vulnerable emotionally than vampires previously had actually been, they to be less breakable physically—susceptible just to daylight and fire and the fatality of the very first of your kind—and possessed superhuman beauty, speed, and also senses. Interview through the Vampire was extremely popular and also sparked a rebirth of vampire fiction that lasted into the 21st century, and subsequent vampire stories continued to use qualities established by Rice. Rice herself wrote several much more books in what subsequently ended up being known as the Vampire Chronicles, few of which were later adjusted for film.

The vampire together a misunderstood romantic hero picked up steam in the later part of the 20th century, specifically in the joined States. In 1978 Chelsea Quinn Yarbro began publishing her collection of counting Saint-Germain books, the main character of i m sorry is a vampire of moral character whose bite is one erotic experience. In many tales vampires are defined as promiscuous, their appetite for human being blood paralleling their sex-related appetite. In 1991 Lori Herter released Obsession, among the very first vampire novels to it is in categorized together romance fairly than scientific research fiction, fantasy, or horror. Buffy the Vampire Slayer, a television present in which the location character has actually a star-crossed romance with a vampire, aired from 1997 come 2003. Vampire romances additionally appeared in the steamy HBO television series True Blood, based on Charlaine Harris’s Sookie Stackhouse book series. Vampire romance because that teens obtained popularity in ~ the finish of the 20th century and also beginning that the 21st, with publications such together the Vampire Diaries collection by L.J. Smith and also the Twilight Saga by Stephenie Meyer. The Twilight Saga, with its high-school romance and vampires the sparkle in the sun quite than bursting into flames, came to be a social sensation, ensuring a vampire tendency for year to come. Vampire relationships of a different sort to be explored in the novel Låt den rätte komma in (2004; Let the appropriate One In) by john Ajvide Lindqvist, in i m sorry the main characters are a forever childlike vampire and a young young she befriends and also helps fend turn off bullies. The publication was adapted for film in Sweden in 2008 and also in the United claims as Let Me In in 2010.

Vampires also enjoyed popularity together unlikely activity heroes. Blade, a half-vampire superhero who very first appeared in comic books, was the focus of three movies (1998, 2002, 2004). Another popular movie series, Underworld (2003, 2006, 2009, 2012), discover an ongoing war between vampires and also werewolves. Dracula himself (known rather as “Alucard”—Dracula assignment backward) even became an activity hero in the Japanese manga and anime Hellsing. Angel, the vampire through a soul and also the love interest of Buffy the Vampire Slayer’s title character, came to be the star of his very own spin-off television series in which the acts as a exclusive detective (1999–2004). And the table role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade (first released 1991)—which added words such together sire (a vampire’s progenitor) and also embrace (the action of make a new vampire) come the vampire lexicon—allowed players to develop their own vampire worlds and also pit warring vampire factions against one another.

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Although vampires had by the 20th century largely come to be creatures the fantasy, metropolitan myths about vampires ongoing to persist. As late together the early 20th century, some towns in Bulgaria still exercised corpse impaling. In the 1960s and also ’70s a vampire was believed to haunt Highgate Cemetery in London, and in the at an early stage 21st century rumours of vampires led to uproar in Malawi and England alike.