Most atoms do not have eight electrons in your valence electron shell. Some atoms have only a few electrons in their outer shell, while part atoms lack only one or 2 electrons to have actually an octet. In instances where an atom has actually three or fewer valence electrons, the atom may shed those valence electron quite easily until what continues to be is a lower shell that has an octet. Atoms that lose electrons get a optimistic charge together a resultbecause they space left v fewer negatively fee electrons come balance the confident charges that the proton in the nucleus. Positively charged ions are referred to as cations. Many metals end up being cations as soon as they do ionic compounds.

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Cations

A neutral salt atom is likely to accomplish an octet in that is outermost shell by shedding its one valence electron.

The cation created in this way, Na+, is dubbed the salt ion to distinguish it from the element. The outermost shell of the sodium ion is the second electron shell, which has eight electron in it. The octet preeminence has to be satisfied. Figure (PageIndex1) is a graphical explicate of this process.

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api/deki/files/114134/3.2B.jpg?revision=1" />Figure (PageIndex2): The development of a Chlorine Ion. On the left, the chlorine atom has 17 electrons. Top top the right, the chloride ion has 18 electrons and has a 1− charge.

The surname for confident and an unfavorable ions space pronounced CAT-eye-ons and also ANN-eye-ons, respectively.

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In countless cases, aspects that belong come the same group (vertical column) top top the routine table kind ions v the very same charge due to the fact that they have actually the same variety of valence electrons. Thus, the periodic table becomes a device for mental the fees on countless ions. For example, all ion made indigenous alkali metals, the very first column ~ above the regular table, have a 1+ charge. Ions made native alkaline earth metals, the second group ~ above the periodic table, have a 2+ charge. On the various other side the the periodic table, the next-to-last column, the halogens, type ions having a 1− charge. Figure (PageIndex3) shows exactly how the charge on plenty of ions can be suspect by the ar of an facet on the regular table. Keep in mind the convention of an initial writing the number and also then the authorize on a ion with multiple charges. The barium cation is written Ba2+, not Ba+2.