A selection of genetic and also genomic resources have been emerged for the residential cat. Each resources has included to the expertise of the cat genome, aiding researcher in the advance of the residential cat together a design for human disease, improving the wellness of the feline itself, and additionally assisting forensic applications. All suitable resources room welcome come be noted on this website – please submit addition resources that are novel or may have been overlooked.

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Domestic Cat Karyotype

The domestic cat chromosomal enhance is 2N = 38 (N = 19) with 18 autosomes and the XY sex chromosomes (XX is female, XY is male). Assorted cytogenetic techniques, such together R-, RBG-banding and also fragile website studies, have additionally helped distinguish and also characterize the cat chromosomes.47-49,52 For example, cats execute not have a far-ranging fragile X site on the X chromosome that is found in humans and is linked with psychological retardation. Return a sequential number is numbered of the chromosomes has actually been said (Cho et al., 1997)3. This historical classification of chromosomes right into morphologic teams has been preserved in the cat.the classical chromosomal nomenclature the represents chromosomes by size and telomeric location is quiet widely supplied to stand for the cat karyotype and also ideograms. Hence cats have actually three large metacentric chromosomes (A1 to A3), four large subtelomeric chromosomes (B1 to B4), two medium-size metacentrics (C1 come C2), four tiny subtelomerics (D1 to D4), three little metacentrics (E1 to E3), and two small acrocentrics (F1 and also F2). The X chromosome is midsize and subtelomeric, comparable to chromosome B4. All of Felidae have a comparable karyotype to the residential cat and the cat karyotype is very representative of many carnivores.

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Early chromosome staining known some major alterations in the felid genome, specifically the Robertsonian translocation the F1 and F2 to kind chromosome C3 in the ocelot lineage of cat from south America (2N = 36)59. Minor pericentric inversions, additions, or deletions the the little chromosomes reason variation in the felid karyotype; however, overall, residential cats have actually a chromosomal style that is very representative for all felids and ancestral for most carnivores. 34,44 The pericentric turning back of chromosome F1 produce a small, more centromeric chromosome and represents together E4 in many cat species.

Historically, the an initial genetic factor to consider to explain reduced fertility or intersex cats is chromosomal differences, especially the loss of among the sex chromosomes. Karyotypic and now gene-based assays are typical methods to determine if a cat through ambiguous genitalia50 or a poor reproductive history has a chromosomal abnormality. Karyotypic studies of masculine tortoiseshell cats have displayed that lock are frequently mosaics, or chimeras, being XX/XY in all or some tissues.* The young chromosomal distinctions that space cytogenetically detectable in between a residential cat and also an asian leopard cat are likely the cause of fertility difficulties in the Bengal cat breed, i beg your pardon is a hybrid between these 2 species. Other significant chromosomal abnormalities causing common “syndromes” are not well documented in the cat. *References 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 19, 20, 42, 54.

Domestic Cat Chromosome Painting

The enough variation of cat chromosomal sizes also permitted for the easy circulation sorting that cat chromosomes.56 Chromosome painting has indicated that the cat genome company is very conserved to that of human being chromosomes. For example, the p arm of person chromosome 1(1p) is mainly composed of the exact same genes that room on the cat chromosome defined as C1, whereas human chromosome 1q is created of genes that are uncovered on cat chromosome F1. The chromosome painting method has also be carry out reciprocally, implying painting cat chromosomes onto human mitotic chromosome spreads and also human chromosomes top top cat mitotic chromosome spreads, revealing the high preservation of chromosomal setup of cat come humans,56,61 specifically contrasted to mice.53 Thus chromosome painting is great overview that cat genome organization, 38 which considerably facilitates candidate gene approaches since the place of specific genes can be suspect in cat from comparison with the genetic map the humans.55 This added confirmation of conservation to human, v regard come genome organization, additional supported added genetic source development for the cat together a beneficial animal model for person disease.

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O’Brien SJ, Wienberg J, Lyon LA: compare genomics: lessons native cats,Trends Genet 13:393, 1997.

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References

2. Centerwall WR, Benirschke K: pet model for the XXY Klinefelter’s syndrome in man: tortoiseshell and also calico masculine cats, Am J Vet Res 36:1275, 1975. 3. Cho KW, Youn HY, Watari T et al: A propose nomenclature of the domestic cat karyotype,Cytogenet cabinet Genet 79:71, 1997. 4. Chu EHY, Thuline HC, Norby DE: Triploid-diploid chimerism in a male tortoiseshell cat,Cytogenetics 24:1, 1964. 7. Doncaster L: on the inheritance the tortoiseshell and related colour in cats, Proc Camb Philol Soc13:35, 1904. 10. Gregson NM, Ishmael J: Diploid triploid chimerism in three tortoiseshell cats, Res Vet Sci 12:275, 1971. 14. Ishihara T: Cytological researches on tortoiseshell masculine cats, Cytologia 21:391, 1956. 19. Kosowska B, Januszewski A, Tokarska M et al: Cytogenetic and histologic studies of tortoiseshell cats, Med Weter 57:475, 2001. 20. Kuiper H, Hewicker-Trautwein M, Distl O: Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 110:457, 2003. 34. Nash WG, O’Brien SJ: Conserved areas of homologous G-banded chromosomes between orders in mammalian evolution: carnivores and also primates, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79:6631, 1982. 38. O’Brien SJ, Wienberg J, Lyon LA: compare genomics: lessons indigenous cats, Trends Genet 13:393, 1997. 42. Pyle RL, Patterson DF, Hare WC et al: XXY sex chromosome constitution in a Himalayan cat through tortoise-shell points, J Hered 62:220, 1971. 44. Rettenberger G, Klett C, Zechner U et al: ZOO-FISH analysis: cat and also human karyotypes closely resemble the putative genealogical mammalian karyotype, Chromosome Res 3:479, 1995. 47. Ronne M: Localization of vulnerable sites in the karyotype of Felis catus, Hereditas 122:279, 1995. 48. Ronne M, Storm CO: The high resolution RBG-banded karyotype of Felis catus, In Vivo 6:517, 1992. 49. Ronne M, Storm CO: Localization the landmarks and bands in the karyotype of Felis catus,Cytobios 81:213, 1995. 52. Shibasaki Y, Flou S, Ronne M: The R-banded karyotype of Felis catus, Cytobios 51:35, 1987. 53. Stanyon R, Yang F, Cavagna p et al: mutual chromosome painting shows the genomic rearrangement between rat and mouse proceeds ten times quicker than between humans and also cats,Cytogenet cell Genet 84:150, 1999. 54. Thuline HC: masculine tortoiseshell, chimerism and true hermaphroditism, J Cat Genet 4:2, 1964. 55. Wienberg J, Stanyon R: Chromosome painting in mammals as an approach to compare genomics, Curr Opin Genet Dev 5:792, 1995. 56. Wienberg J, Stanyon R, Nash WG et al: conservation of person vs. Feline genome organization revealed by mutual chromosome painting, Cytogenet cell Genet 77:211, 1997. 57. Wurster-Hill DH, Centerwall WR: The interrelationships that chromosome banding trends in canids, mustelids, hyena, and felids, Cytogenet cell Genet 34:178, 1982. 58. Wurster-Hill DH, Doi T, Izawa M et al: Banded chromosome examine of the Iriomote cat, J Hered 78: 105, 1987. 59. Wurster-Hill DH, Gray CW: Giemsa banding patterns in the chromosomes the twelve species of cat (Felidae), Cytogenet cabinet Genet 12:388, 1973. 60. Wurster-Hill DH, Gray CW: The interrelationships that chromosome banding fads in procyonids, viverrids, and also felids, Cytogenet cell Genet 15:306, 1975. 61. Yang F, Graphodatsky AS, O’Brien pc et al: reciprocal chromosome painting illuminates the history of genome development of the residential cat, dog and also human, Chromosome Res 8:393, 2000.