Magnesium

Element 12 of Periodic table is Magnesium with atomic number 12, atomic weight 24.305. Magnesium, symbol Mg, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Magnesium is a alkaline earth metal element. Trivial name of Magnesium is alkaline earth metals*. Know everything about Magnesium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (Group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table:they each have the same electron configuration in their outer electron shell producing a similar crystal structure. Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.

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Magnesium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Magnesium

Name Magnesium
Atomic Number 12
Atomic Symbol Mg
Atomic Weight 24.305
Phase Solid
Color Silver
Classification alkaline earth metal
Group in Periodic Table 2
Group Name beryllium family
Period in Periodic Table 3
Block in Periodic Table s-block
Electronic Configuration 3s2
Melting Point 650 °C
Boiling Point 1090 °C
Electronic Shell Structure <2, 8, 2>
CAS Number CAS7439-95-4

Neighborhood
3
Li
4
Be
11
Na
12
Mg
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

Explore our interactive periodic tmaybe


How to Locate Magnesium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 12 to find Magnesium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Magnesium on periodic table look for cross section of group 2 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Explore Interactive Periodic Table to Understand and Learn Cool Trend

Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & Orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Magnesium with other elements

Magnesium History

The element Magnesium was discovered by Joseph Black in year 1755 in United Kingdom . Magnesium derived its name from Magnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece

Magnesium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Magnesium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 0.0006
Abundance in Sun 0.0007
Abundance in Meteorites 0.12
Abundance in Earth"s Crust 0.029
Abundance in Oceans 0.0013
Abundance in Humans 0.00027

Crystal Structure of Magnesium

The solid state structure of Magnesium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
320.94 320.94 521.08 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc
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Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Magnesium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Magnesium atoms have 12 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 2> with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.


Atomic Number 12
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 12
Number of Protons 12
Mass Number 24
Number of Neutrons 12
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 2>
Electron Configuration 3s2
Valence Electrons 3s2
Oxidation State 1;2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0

Shell Structure of Magnesium - Electrons per energy level


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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Magnesium - neutral Magnesium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Magnesium atom is 3s2. The portion of Magnesium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

See more: What Is The Setting Of Act Ii Of The Crucible, The Crucible Act Ii

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Magnesium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Magnesium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2

Atomic Structure of Magnesium

Magnesium atomic radius is 145 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 130 pm.

Atomic Radius

145 pm (1.45 Å)

Atomic Volume 13.9844649022 cm3
Covalent Radius 130 pm (1.3 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 173 pm
Neutron Cross Section 0.063 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Magnesium

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Magnesium Chemical Properties: Magnesium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Magnesium is 0 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 1.31
ElectronAffinity 0 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Magnesium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Magnesium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 737.7
2 1450.7
3 7732.7
4 10542.5
5 13630
6 18020
7 21711
8 25661
9 31653
10 35458

Magnesium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Magnesium Physical Properties

Density 1.738 g/cm3
Molar Volume 13.9844649022 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 45 GPa
Shear Modulus 17 GPa
Bulk Modulus 45 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.29

Hardness of Magnesium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 260 MPa

Magnesium Electrical Properties

Magnesium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Magnesium

Electrical Conductivity 2.3×107 S/m
Resistivity 4.4×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Magnesium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 160 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 8.2×10-6 K-1

Magnesium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 6.9×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.68×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 1.2e-05

Optical Properties of Magnesium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Magnesium

Speed of Sound 4602 m/s

Magnesium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Magnesium

Melting Point 923 K (650 °C)
Boiling Point 1363 K (1090 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Magnesium

Heat of Fusion 8.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 128 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion -668 J/(kg K)

Magnesium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Magnesium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Magnesium has 3 stable isotope - 24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg.


Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
19Mg
20Mg
21Mg
22Mg
23Mg
24Mg 78.99% Stable N/A
25Mg 10% Stable N/A
26Mg 11.01% Stable N/A
27Mg
28Mg
29Mg
30Mg
31Mg
32Mg
33Mg
34Mg
35Mg
36Mg
37Mg
38Mg
39Mg
40Mg

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7439-95-4
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 2950
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 1
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 0
NFPA Reactivity Rating 1
Autoignition Point 472 °C
Flashpoint 500 °C

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7439-95-4
CID Number CID5462224
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

Compare Magnesium with all Group 2 elements

Magnesium vs Beryllium Magnesium vs Calcium Magnesium vs Strontium Magnesium vs Barium Magnesium vs Radium

Compare Magnesium with all alkaline earth metal elements

Magnesium vs Beryllium Magnesium vs Calcium Magnesium vs Strontium Magnesium vs Barium Magnesium vs Radium