The main bank and commercial banks both kind the basic of a country’s economy. However, they space incredibly different from one another. Once the central bank is the supreme company of the banking device of any type of country, the advertisement banks role under the rules, regulations, policies and also guidelines of the main bank.

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The far-reaching difference between the two is the the central bank is the apex body to run the entirety banking system. Whereas, a commercial bank is simply a constituent unit that the banking device which operates come facilitate exchange and make profits.

Content: distinction Between main Bank and Commercial Bank

Difference and Comparison

BasisCentral BankCommercial Bank
MeaningThe apex human body which regulates the it is provided of money in the economy and also administers the banking device operations in a countryA financial school which begin deposits, carry out loans and also invest the public"s money to earn revenues
OwnershipPublicPublic or private
Banking SystemApex InstituteConstituent Unit
Bank ChiefGovernorChairman
Number the BanksSingleMany
CustomersOther banks and also governmentGeneral public
Motive or ObjectiveControlling credit systemProfit earning
Foreign currency FunctionGuardian of foreign currencyDealer of foreign currency
LoansLender that the last resort for commercial banksLending advertising loans, an individual loans, housing loans, profession finance, car loans and also mortgage loans
Other FunctionsIssuing federal government bonds, formulates banking regulations and fund clearance among member banksSafe deposits service, foreign exchange provision and also letter of credit
Note printing AuthorityYesNo
Monetary AuthorityYesNo
Monetary it is provided FunctionYesNo
Example with referral to IndiaReserve financial institution of India (RBI)State financial institution of India (SBI), central Bank the India (CBI), Canara Bank, etc.
Governing human body in IndiaReserve bank of India action 1934Banking Regulation act 1949

What is a Central Bank?

The central bank is one apex human body which intends at controlling and managing the banking system operations along with regulating the money supply because that the financial stability of a country.

Features of central Bank

To clearly understand what a central bank is, let united state go through its characteristics, provided below:


Monopoly: The central bank is only one in every country, enjoying the monopolistic rights and authorities.Apex Body: it is the supreme body the the country’s banking system regulating the various other banks and also supporting the entirety banking structure of the nation.Government-Owned: The main bank is strictly owned by the government and also thus belong to the public sector.Legal Entity: it is a legit entity created under the provisions that a certain act of the government, hold a one-of-a-kind significance and rights.Banker of other Banks and also Government: The central bank offers the banking solutions such together deposits and also withdrawals to the assorted commercial banks and also government.Monetary Authority: that keeps complete control over the flow of money within a nation through the formulation of assorted monetary policies, rules and also regulations.Note printing Authority: The central bank is the only financial institution of the country which has actually the authority of printing brand-new notes other than coins and Re. 1 note.Nation’s Gold and Foreign Exchange Reserve: This financial institution is additionally considered to be the custodian the the country’s foreign exchange and gold reserve maintaining these heritage under its supervision.The backbone of banking System: being an apex body, the central bank acts together the backbone of a country’s banking system, performing all the an essential financial functions. Such as framing the banking rules and also regulations, circulation of money in the market and also advising the federal government on economic issues.Clearing House: The main bank deserve to be seen as a clearinghouse since it initiates the negotiation of bills, cheques and other jae won instruments amongst the two or more banks to ensure smooth to work of the banking system in a country.

What is a Commercial Bank?

A commercial financial institution is a financial institution which intends at making earnings by initiating deposits native the public, providing loans come them and investing their money in rewarding options.

Features of commercial Bank

Commercial financial institutions are the banks to i m sorry you, I and other basic public visit from time come time to seek various financial services. Allow us now go through the following functions of the commercial financial institutions for thorough knowledge:


Public or personal Ownership: These banks can it is in classified into public and also private banks, i.e. The property of such financial institutions is no just limited to the government.Dealer of international Currency: Such banks accelerate international trade by facilitating the buying and also selling that the international exchange currency.Profit Motive: advertisement banks role with the motive of earning a profit and generating revenue by providing financial services to the public.Types of advertising Banks

Commercial financial institutions can be generally categorized right into four varieties on the basis of your ownership and establishment. This are defined one through one in information below:


Public sector Banks: The banks which room owned by the public sector, i.e. The central bank hold 50% shares, the state government has 15%. Whereas, the commercial financial institutions which sponsor such banks to very own 35% of the holdings.Private sector Banks: Private financial institutions are the ones where personal investors own maximum shares.Foreign Banks: All financial institutions which are created outside the country are termed as foreign banks.Regional rural Banks: The banks which are created in the rural areas for giving financial assistance in moving out agriculture tasks and other small scale commercial operations are recognized as rural banks.

Functions of central Bank

The central bank holds numerous responsibilities and also authorities which specifies its services. These are as follows:


The controller the Money Supply and Credit: The primary duty of the main bank is to regulate the supply of money and the circulation of credit in the market. The is assisted in through quantitative instruments (bank rates, cash make reservation ratio, statutory liquidity ratio and open sector operations) and also qualitative instruments, i.e. Fluctuating the rate of attention for loans.

Printing Currency: The central bank has the government of print the notes of all denominations other than for Re.1 notes and also the coins.

Custodian that Cash Reserve: All the banks have accounts through the main bank where they can maintain part cash reserve because that future needs.

Custodian of international Exchange Reserve: This bank is responsible because that managing, controlling and also exchange the the foreign currency and also gold in a country, by keeping the foreign exchange to make reservation to keep the exchange prices stable.

Clearing House: The main bank acts as a mediator in between the two or much more commercial banks to resolve their account at the time loss and manage the transactions in between the commercial banks.

Lender the the critical Resort: one of the essential functions the the central bank is to provide loans to commercial financial institutions at the moment of emergency, loss and insolvency.

Banking solutions to Banks and also Government: This financial institution provides every the basic banking services favor accepting deposits and also sanctioning loans to the other banks and also the government.

Issuing federal government Bonds: The central bank problems various government bonds to create funds, encourage windy deposits and investments in the country.

Formulates banking Rules and also Regulations: This financial institution performs miscellaneous regulatory functions like license banks, frame banking norms and also policies, prepare a judicial device for debt recovery by banks, security the bank operations, etc. The central bank also practices moral suasion for making the commercial financial institutions to abide through the plans so framed.

Financial Agent and Advisor to the Government: The central bank acts as a financial torture to the federal government by providing an professional opinion in ~ the time economic crisis, fiscal deficit, and also advancing loans to various other countries. At the same time, it additionally acts as an agent by representing the country and also the federal government in international conferences and meetings, along with issuing the government bonds and securities on instead of of the government.

Functions of advertisement Banks

The commercial financial institutions have multiple work to perform. These space bifurcated into the following two heads, each including plenty of activities:


Primary Functions

The commercial banks carry out various functions, the important ones others as follows:

Accepting Deposits: The banks receive deposits native its client by initiating them come open current accounts, to save accounts, solved accounts, etc.Providing Loans and Advances: They additionally offer permanent loans, demand loans, short-term loans and many others to fulfil the customer’s financial needs.

Secondary Functions

Other 보다 the over mentioned straightforward operations of commercial banks, there are many an additional functions carry out by these financial institutions are classified into the adhering to two categories:

Agency Functions: Commercial banks work together agents to the general public or the customers, by giving various payment and collection facilities on a weekly, monthly or yearly communication by charging part commission. The performs the following activities in this context:The commercial financial institutions act as an agent by paying miscellaneous interests on behalf of your customers.They likewise pay the instalments ~ above the loans borrowed by customers, such as house loans, automobile loans and personal loans ~ above a monthly, quarterly or yearly basis.They also facilitate the payment the taxes, mutual fund instalments and also insurance premium because that the customers.The financial institutions on behalf of your customers; collect cheques, interests, rents, dividends, etc.Utility Functions: other than the company functions, the banks also administer other facilities to the public. Few of these are mentioned below:The advertising banks administer the facility of bank overdraft to attract money also in the zero balance instance of the holder’s account.These banks provide money to client by discounting their bills of exchange and also promissory notes.The financial institutions provide lockers to the client to save their jewellery and also valuables in safe custody with the banks.The advertising banks also issue traveller’s cheques to carry during the journey by the customers to avoid the lose or theft that cash.


To know more about the differences in detail, review the offered explanation of the above comparison graph below:

The central bank is the apex institution administering and controlling the totality monetary and banking device of the country. ~ above the various other hand, a commercial financial institution is a financial institution i m sorry earns a profit by initiating deposits, advancing loans and also investing the public’s money in various opportunities.The central bank is generally a public sector organization own by the state in many countries. Whereas, commercial financial institutions are organized by both the public and private sectors.The previous is an apex college or the supreme body of the bank system. However, a commercial financial institution is a financial college which functions under the regulations of the central bank.Central bank’s cook is the Governor of the central bank. Whereas, advertisement bank’s head is the Chairman the the respective commercial bank.When the previous is the only bank of its type in the country, the latter has actually many institutions of different types.While main bank serves the other banks together with the government, commercial financial institutions serve the basic public, including individuals and business organizations.The main objective of the main bank is credit control and also economic stability. On the contrary, the advertisement banks’ primary motive is to earn a profit.When the main bank is the guardian the the foreign currency regulation the foreign exchange operations, commercial financial institutions are dealers of foreign currency facilitating such transactions for its customers.The former provides a loan come the advertising banks in situation of emergency, whereas the latter offers loans to its customers on regular basis to create profits.The various other functions of central bank indicate issuing of government bonds, formulate banking regulations and also clearance the funds amongst member banks. However, the functions of commercial financial institutions include safe deposits service, foreign exchange provision, and issuing a letter the credit.The central bank has the authority of printing brand-new currency other than for coins and Re. 1 notes, conversely, commercial banks do not have actually this authority.The former holds various monetary authorities such as framing the fiscal policies and also regulating the banking operations in a country. Top top the contrary, the latter has no together rights.The main bank practice control over the supply of money and credit terms and conditions in the financial market. However, the commercial financial institutions have come follow the accuse of the central bank regarding money supply and credit terms.The previous is the only financial institution of that is kind, enjoying the monopoly in the banking sector. But the latter are multiple in number and duty under the central bank.The central bank that India is the Reserve financial institution of India (RBI). Whereas, the miscellaneous others favor State bank of India (SBI), central Bank the India (CBI) and also Canara Bank room all advertising banks.In India, the Reserve bank of India is administrate under the Reserve bank of India plot 1934. However, the commercial financial institutions are governed by the Banking Regulation act 1949.

No business can duty properly without the solutions of the banks. Ideal from acquisition loans to accomplish the financial requirement of the organization to depositing the income and profits for additional needs, banks play a an essential role.

Where the commercial banks administer various such services to the public, in general, i.e. The individuals and also the service entities, the central bank assists every the advertising banks and the government, to duty correctly.

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To conclude, we have the right to say that both the central bank and the commercial banks are crucial to the country, the economy, the service entities and the public; make everyone’s resides easier.