A covalent bond entails overlapping of orbitals while an Ionic bond requires charge separation.

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Why are bonds developed by the overlapping of orbitals weaker than charge separation; why is an ionic bond stronger than a covalent bond?


In a fully covalent bond, you just have actually the mixing of the orbitals, as you said. But it"s not just that, you likewise have actually coulomb interactions between the nuclei, that slightly raise the energy of the molecular orbitals, which outcomes in asymmetric energies.

In a totally ionic bond you additionally have a coulomb interactivity, but this time with the different sign, because you have a positive and also an adverse charge. These desire to be as cshed together as possible, leading to a stronger bond.

Typically speaking: Coulomb interactions have a greater affect than molecular orbitals on the power, and also for this reason the stamina, of a bond.

It"s practically prefer saying that electromagnetic forces are more powerful than gravitational forces.



Two atoms will certainly constantly (with a few corner-situation exceptions) develop the strongest bond between them that they can.

If they develop a covalent bond then that is bereason the covalent bond is stronger than the alternate ionic bond (at least after taking into account the ionisation energies). This is either bereason the covalent bond is solid (good orbital overlap) or the ionisation energies are so huge that they would certainly outweigh the ionic lattice enthalpy.

If they create an ionic bond then that is bereason the ionic bond is more powerful than the alternative covalent bond. This is either because the covalent bond is weak (poor orbital overlap / mismatched orbital energies) or the ionisation energies are reasonably little compared to the lattice enthalpy.


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