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I-1
INTRODUCTION come TORPEDO FIRE CONTROL

The Nature that the Torpedo together a WeaponIn the last ar of these instruction sheets friend learned how surface pearl employ assorted weapons versus submarines. You observed that a an excellent deal the intricate equipment is used to detect, locate and also attack these underwater enemies. You might ask why antisubmarine warfare is so essential -certainly a sub"s deck guns, if it had any, would be the no value against an ext heavily equipped surface ships. The answer, of course, is the a submarine"s major weapon is the torpedo-a self-propelled missile design to take trip underwater and also carry an explosive fee to an enemy vessel. Making use of torpedoes, subs and little surface ships have actually a "Sunday punch" to throw at large surface ships.Torpedoes room very an effective and efficient weapons, and their usage is not restricted to submarines. In enhancement to gift fired indigenous submerged subs, they may be dropped native planes or launched from torpedo (PT) boats and also destroyers.

You are watching: A self-propelled missile, launched usually from a ship or submarine:

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There room two general classifications that torpedoes-homing and also non-homing (or aimed). The homing torpedo, which seeks out its very own target, was discussed briefly in the coming before section. The aimed torpedo, i m sorry is collection to monitor a resolved course ~ firing, to be for plenty of years the only type in use. In ~ present, the homing torpedo is rapidly coming to the fore, yet the non-homing kind will remain vital for some time, and also you should understand something around aimed torpedoes and how they room used.On the following sheets we will certainly limit our discussion to the non-homing torpedo and the fire regulate problem it presents as soon as fired indigenous destroyers.
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INTRODUCTION to TORPEDO FIRE CONTROL

Comparing the Surface and Torpedo Fire manage ProblemsThe non-homing torpedo is a weapon which have the right to be used successfully only versus targets top top the ocean"s surface. In this section of accuse sheets we are considering just its use by destroyers-the Navy"s main submarine hunter. Our discussion, then, is concerned with the difficulty of managing the firing of a missile by one surface ar ship versus another surface ship. Therefore the torpedo fire regulate problem is really closely concerned the surface (or main-battery) fire control problem. In bespeak to resolve both difficulties it is vital to identify the target"s position by measure up its bearing and variety only-no target key or depth is connected as in the antiaircraft and antisubmarine problems. As soon as the problem has been addressed the torpedo is launched and also follows a fixed, pre-determined course calculated come intercept the target at its future position, just as main-battery firearms are trained and elevated to fire a projectile top top a fixed, predetermined trajectory calculation to carry the projectile come the target"s future position. The only thing i m sorry distinguishes the two assaults is the way in which the missile is ceded to the target. The gun"s projectile travels on a curved trajectory despite the air, while the torpedo travel in an basically straight heat just listed below the surface ar of the ocean. In addition, that course, the projectile receives all of its driving pressure from the gun, and also thus proceeds as a free missile, while the torpedo is self-propelled.

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You deserve to see that there is lot similarity between the torpedo fire control problem and the basic surface problem. Now let"s go on come learn an ext about torpedoes, how they room used and the fire control system i beg your pardon solves the torpedo problem.
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INTRODUCTION to TORPEDO FIRE CONTROL

The Construction and also Operation of TorpedoesThere room various species of aimed torpedoes in usage by the navy today, but they space all usually the same in that they save on computer an explosive charge, a drive mechanism, and gyroscopic regulate devices.Aimed torpedoes may use either an air-steam or an electric drive mechanism. The air-steam type was the "tin-fish" of human being War II fame. It has actually the disadvantage, however, of leave a wake of foamy white sea water behind it as result of its exhaust. This wake can often be spotted by the target delivery soon enough to maneuver the end of the torpedo"s path. To conquer this disadvantage, the electrical torpedo was developed. This kind is thrust by an electrical motor i beg your pardon receives power from storage batteries. In various other respects it is comparable to the air-steam type. Let"s take a look inside a usual air-steam torpedo and see just how it works.

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The warhead consists of the explosive charge and also the exploder, i beg your pardon is a device which detonates the explosive charge once the torpedo reaches its target. The wait flask section includes flasks which contain the air, water and also fuel forced to propel and also guide the torpedo. The air, fuel and also water are combined and the result high push gas is fed to and also spins the engine"s turbines. The turbines revolve the propeller shafts which journey the propellers in the torpedo"s tail.The afterbody contains, in addition to the engine, the gyro mechanism and also depth and steering devices. These gadgets are thrust by high press air native the waiting flask, and also by making use of gyroscopic action and a water push gauge, keep the torpedo traveling on the wanted course and also at the preferred depth beneath the surface. Every one of these mechanisms are collection in activity when the torpedo is fired. The electrical torpedo is very similar to the air-steam type, through storage batteries instead of the waiting flask and also an electric motor instead of the air-steam engine. A smaller sized air tank carries air to drive the manage devices.Now let"s see exactly how torpedoes are offered by destroyers and also what the torpedo fire control problem is.
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INTRODUCTION come TORPEDO FIRE CONTROL

How Destroyers use the TorpedoThe typical torpedo brought by a destroyer is 21 customs in diameter, 24 feet long and also weighs 3850 pounds. That is carried, plank ship, in among several torpedo tubes i beg your pardon are mounted side by side on a torpedo pipe mount. The pipe mount can be moved in train within specific limits. Once fired, the torpedo is ejected indigenous its tube by method of compressed wait or a tiny charge of black color powder with enough force to clear the firing ship. As it leaves the tube, its inner mechanisms are set in activity so the it is under its very own power by the moment it access time the water. The mount is trained, after equipment of the fire regulate problem, to start the torpedo in the direction which, with the torpedo"s gyro setups considered, is calculated to score a hit.

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The modern-day destroyer dead one or an ext torpedo pipe mounts, every mount consist of of 5 tubes. Hence in battle a single destroyer have the right to fire five or an ext torpedoes concurrently or in rapid succession at an adversary ship.Now that you understand a tiny about torpedoes and also the mechanics of shooting them from destroyers, let"s uncover out about the problems connected in directing this an effective weapon versus the enemy-the torpedo fire control problem.
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INTRODUCTION come TORPEDO FIRE CONTROL

Methods of firing TorpedoesA destroyer torpedo assault will typically be detected by the target delivery in the early on stages; therefore the torpedoes must be fired at comparatively long ranges. Unfortunately, this gives the target time come maneuver so as to avoid gift hit. For this reason, destroyers commonly fire several torpedoes in rapid sequence to type a spread out or fan-shaped pattern. This procedure significantly increases the opportunity of obtaining a hit, and is similar to the technique used in antisubmarine war in that the fire control problem is solved with respect to the facility torpedo in the pattern. A group of destroyers in battle usually fires its torpedoes as a unit, through each delivery firing a spread. This combination of spreads produces a sample which is almost details to an outcome in part hits. With spread firing it is feasible to neglect details errors which would have to be considered in the fire manage problem if a solitary torpedo to be fired to hit a given allude of aim.The two methods of shoot torpedoes in a spread are: (1) directly fire, and (2) curved fire. In both approaches the spreads are created by setup small angular offsets into the gyro mechanisms of the individual torpedoes, for this reason causing each to monitor a slightly different course. Curved fire is completed by setting an additional uniform counter angle in every the torpedoes in the mountain to the angle it is preferred for the torpedoes come turn appropriate or left after gift launched. Curved fire is provided when the preferred torpedoes" course is such that directly fire would cause the torpedoes come strike some component of the ship"s superstructure.

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I-6
INTRODUCTION come TORPEDO FIRE CONTROL

The Nature the the Torpedo Fire regulate ProblemThe torpedo fire manage problem is very much favor the surface fire manage problem. The solution calls for the decision of current target position and prediction that future target position. There room several essential differences, however. Instead of travel in a curved trajectory with the wait at an extremely high speed, the fired torpedo travel in a right line just listed below the surface of the s at fairly low speeds. The is not important to correct because that wind, drift, level, crosslevel, earth"s curvature, etc. Because these determinants do not influence the take trip of the missile. Due to the nature of the weapon no computations because that gun elevation and also fuze orders are necessary. Therefore the fire control problem for torpedoes is much much easier than for surface or antiaircraft fire.It is essential to identify only the torpedo course and also speed compelled to have it intercept the target in ~ its future position. The tubes are then trained to begin the torpedoes top top the forced course, and also the weapons room fired at the appropriate time to cause the torpedo to intercept the target.

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The torpedo track and the target track stand for the travel of the torpedo and target dong from the instant of shooting until the time of impact. The above presentation of the trouble is lot simplified, but serves to show the nature the the an easy elements that the problem.
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INTRODUCTION come TORPEDO FIRE CONTROL

A typical Torpedo Fire manage SystemA common torpedo fire regulate system designed to manage the fire of non-homing torpedoes native destroyers consists of two torpedo directors, one at each end of the signal bridge, and torpedo food indicators and also torpedo-tube mount sights in ~ each pipe mount. The 2 kinds of regulate used because that torpedo fire room bridge control and also local control. In leg control, the primary technique of manage on contemporary destroyers, the fire manage problem is solved at the torpedo director. Torpedo course (tube mount train angle) and torpedo gyro setups aretransfer automatically from the director to the torpedo course indicators at the pipe mounts. The mountain is trained by the mountain operators, who revolve their handcranks to complement dials top top the indicator, hence introducing the proper sight angle.Local regulate is accomplished at the mountain itself, and also is typically used only when the torpedo manager is inoperative. In this method the torpedo-tube mount vision is balance out by the required sight angle and the mount is trained till the vision is on the allude of aim.

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I-8
INTRODUCTION to TORPEDO FIRE CONTROL

The Torpedo DirectorAs currently mentioned, most destroyers space equipped v two torpedo directors, one on every side of the signal bridge. One of two people of these directors may regulate the fire that the solitary quintuple tube mount commonly installed, or either or all mounts if the delivery has an ext than one. The director performs the adhering to functions: (1) actions relative target bearing instantly as the manager trainer keeps the line of sight on the target or matches pointers in an answer to radar signals; (2) computes the forced sight angle, utilizing inputs that torpedo speed, target speed and target course; (3) combines relative target bearing with sight edge to acquire the compelled torpedo course.In resolving the torpedo difficulty the initial director set-up is made by (1) introducing target speed, torpedo speed, and target course by hand, (2) receiving own ship"s course electrically, and (3) keeping the director telescope heat of vision on the target. After details corrections room applied, the details of which will not be disputed here, the director immediately transmits gyro edge order and also torpedo food order to the torpedo food indicator at the torpedo tube mount.

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The torpedo director is not much various from the computers you have currently studied. That is basically a mechanical computer system equipped v a sight telescope to make tracking possible. The hand input it calls for are got from the Combat Information facility by phone. Because you are already familiar with comparable computers, it will certainly not be debated here further.
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INTRODUCTION come TORPEDO FIRE CONTROL

The Torpedo food Indicator and also Tube mountain SightThe torpedo course indicator receive torpedo course order and gyro edge order electrically indigenous the torpedo director. Once straight fire is being employed, the gyro edge is zero and also the torpedo course amounts to the tube train. However, during curved fire the pipe train is the sum or difference of the required torpedo course and also the gyro angle, as presented below.

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By turning the matching handwheels top top tile tube mount, the indicator operator matches the torpedo course and gyro angle dials, in ~ the exact same time relocating the mount with the correct pipe train angle and setup the torpedo gyro controls come the suitable value.The torpedo-tube mount vision is used only during local control. The vision is a mix simple director and aiming device, and when the suitable inputs are introduced and also the sight is aimed in ~ the target, the mountain is properly trained to command the target by the suitable amount. This form of regulate is not, the course, as specific as director control, yet is sufficiently exact for emergency use as soon as the director is inoperative.This, then, is briefly just how a typical destroyer torpedo fire control system operates. With the breakthrough of homing torpedoes, the non-homing type is being used less and also less, yet you should recognize a little about just how these weapons room employed.Now let"s walk on to the final specialized type that fire control system to be considered-the systems supplied to regulate rockets and also guided missiles.
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