group familyperiod alkali steel alkaline earthmetal halogen noble gasmetal nonmetal semimetalvalence electron abbreviation electronconfiguration noble gas inside core
Notes: (5-2)The periodic Table:Our current periodic table perform 109 elements. Itis arranged according come the periodic law:
You are watching: A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
|Each duration contains much more elements than the previous one. This needs to do with the increasing energy levels (n=1, ...) that the atom.|
|period 1 - 2 elements|
|duration 2 & 3 - 8 elements|
|period 4 & 5 - 18 elements|
|period 6 - 32 elements|
Labeling and also Naming:
There are right now 3 numbering schemes supplied in chemistry because that the orderingof groups.
|Roman - IA - VIIIA & IB-VIIIB|
|Arabic - 1A-2A, 3B-8B, 1B-2B, 3A-8A|
|Number - 1-18|
|1A - alkali metals|
|2A - alkaline planet metals|
|7A - halogens|
|8A - noble gases|
|4A - sometimes well-known as the Carbon group|
Exception - Hydrogen can be far better placed in team 7A. Although,some publications place the in both.
Metals & Non-metals:
Metals encompass the areas shaded irradiate blue andinclude the households 1A & 2A. Castle share many characteristics.
|good conductors of heat and also electricity|
|typically solid at room temperature|
|most space malleable and ductile|
Non-metals are shaded light red in most periodictables and type a diagonal from C-6 to Rn-86 and include all the aspects ofthat edge including H. They share some of these characteristics.
|do no possess luster|
|poor conductors that heat and electricity|
|neither easy or ductile|
|many are gasses in ~ room temperature|
|can be solid, semisolid, gas, or fluid (Br). One is the hardest material on Earth|
Semimetals or metalloids are shaded irradiate lightpurple in most periodic tables kind a diagonal from B-5 to At-85 and include allthe facets Ge-32 and also Sb-51. Castle share few of thesecharacteristics.
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|have some properties the metals and some that non-metals|
As girlfriend learned earlier, the number of protons inan atom is same to the number of electrons in the atom if that is neutral.The regular table enables you come predict the bonding of an atom by permitting youto watch the number of electrons in the valence orbital. The valence orbitalis the highest, outermost orbit of the atom and is the just one connected inthe bonding that the atom. Below are some clues for predicting valenceelectrons:
|Elements of the same team (column) have the very same valence electrons or configuration|
|s-block is group 1A & 2A|
|p-block is group 3A to 8A|
|These space the representative aspects or main group elements|
|d-block is group 3B come 2B (look in ~ the regular table above because the numbers space not sequential)|
|These room the shift metals|
|f-block is located listed below the key table|
|These are the inner change metals or rare earth elements|
To save space on electron construction notationyou deserve to use the abbreviated notation by listing the inner gas core and then thevalence electrons.