group familyperiod alkali steel alkaline earthmetal halogen noble gasmetal nonmetal semimetalvalence electron abbreviation electronconfiguration noble gas inside core

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Notes: (5-2)The periodic Table:Our current periodic table perform 109 elements. Itis arranged according come the periodic law: Elements room arranged in bespeak of increasing atomic number, your physical and chemical properties show a regular pattern.

You are watching: A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table

Elements that have similar properties space arranged in teams or family members - vertical columns The horizontal rows are dubbed periods.


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Each duration contains much more elements than the previous one. This needs to do with the increasing energy levels (n=1, ...) that the atom.
period 1 - 2 elements
duration 2 & 3 - 8 elements
period 4 & 5 - 18 elements
period 6 - 32 elements

Labeling and also Naming:

There are right now 3 numbering schemes supplied in chemistry because that the orderingof groups.

Arabic - 1A-2A, 3B-8B, 1B-2B, 3A-8A
Number - 1-18


1A - alkali metals
2A - alkaline planet metals
7A - halogens
8A - noble gases
4A - sometimes well-known as the Carbon group

Exception - Hydrogen can be far better placed in team 7A. Although,some publications place the in both.


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Metals & Non-metals:

Metals encompass the areas shaded irradiate blue andinclude the households 1A & 2A. Castle share many characteristics.

luster (shine)
good conductors of heat and also electricity
typically solid at room temperature
most space malleable and ductile

Non-metals are shaded light red in most periodictables and type a diagonal from C-6 to Rn-86 and include all the aspects ofthat edge including H. They share some of these characteristics.

do no possess luster
poor conductors that heat and electricity
neither easy or ductile
many are gasses in ~ room temperature
can be solid, semisolid, gas, or fluid (Br). One is the hardest material on Earth

Semimetals or metalloids are shaded irradiate lightpurple in most periodic tables kind a diagonal from B-5 to At-85 and include allthe facets Ge-32 and also Sb-51. Castle share few of thesecharacteristics.

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have some properties the metals and some that non-metals

Electron Configuration:

As girlfriend learned earlier, the number of protons inan atom is same to the number of electrons in the atom if that is neutral.The regular table enables you come predict the bonding of an atom by permitting youto watch the number of electrons in the valence orbital. The valence orbitalis the highest, outermost orbit of the atom and is the just one connected inthe bonding that the atom. Below are some clues for predicting valenceelectrons:


Elements of the same team (column) have the very same valence electrons or configuration
s-block is group 1A & 2A
p-block is group 3A to 8A
These space the representative aspects or main group elements
d-block is group 3B come 2B (look in ~ the regular table above because the numbers space not sequential)
These room the shift metals
f-block is located listed below the key table
These are the inner change metals or rare earth elements

To save space on electron construction notationyou deserve to use the abbreviated notation by listing the inner gas core and then thevalence electrons.