Rotary press prints with gauge 11 by 10½ perforations approve in panes of 6 in multipane booklets with interleaves and also cardboard consists are detailed as Scott 632a, with a magazine value of $5 unused and $4 used.

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Rotary press prints the the 1¢ Franklin stamp through gauge 11 by 10½ perforations authorize in panes the 100 are listed as Scott 632, v a minimum magazine value the 25¢ unused or used.


Rotary press prints v gauge 10 perforations issued in panes that 100 are detailed as Scott 581, with a directory value that $10 unused and also 75¢ used.


Vertical format coil stamps v gauge 10 horizontal perforations are detailed as Scott 604, through a catalog value that 40¢ unused and also 25¢ used. This stamps were published on the exact same presses together horizontal layout coils and also issued in 500- and 1,000-stamp rolls, but were less popular among mail users.


Horizontal layout coil stamps with gauge 10 vertical perforations, issued in rolfes of 500, 1,000 and also 3,000 stamps, are listed as Scott 597, through a catalog value the 30¢ unused and also 25¢ used. All coil stamps the this collection were published on rotating presses.


Imperforate flat-plate prints approve in uncut sheets of 400 because that proprietary perforation and also coiling by private manufacturers of rubber stamp vending and affixing machines are noted as Scott 575, v a brochure value the $5 provided or unused.

Flat-plate prints v gauge 11 perforations issued as panes of 6 in multipane booklets v interleaves and also cardboard covers are provided as Scott 552a, through a catalog value of $7.50 unused and $4 used.

Flat-plate prints the the 1¢ Franklin stamp through gauge 11 perforations approve in panes of 100 are listed as Scott 552, v a minimum current directory value that 25¢ either offered or unused.

Five single Scott 596 stamps are taped with simple postal cancellations. In that condition the directory value in the great of good is $150,000.

Tall rotary press sheet rubbish stamps through gauge 11 perforations are noted as Scott 596. That is among the rarest stamps the the 20th century, and also is known only in supplied condition. Around 10 are tape-recorded with Kansas City, Mo., precancel overprints. The magazine value the the bureau precanceled variety is $100,000.

Oklahoma collector Roland Austin to buy this cover because that 25¢ in ~ a stamp present in 1990. The franking has a pair of scarce Scott 594 coil waste stamps, which has actually a current brochure value the $25,000.

Wide rotary push coil rubbish stamps with gauge 11 perforations are detailed as Scott 594. They have actually a brochure value of $65,000 unused v gum, $35,000 unused without gum and $10,500 used. Both unused and used values space for off-center stamps v the perforations poignant the structure line ~ above one side. They are scarce stamps; approximately 125 have actually been recorded.

Rotary push prints v gauge 11 by 10 perforations, so-called coil garbage stamps issued in sheets that 170, are detailed as Scott 578, with a magazine value of $75 unused and also $160 used.

Rotary push prints of the 1¢ Franklin stamp v gauge 11 through 10½ perforations, overprinted “CANAL ZONE” and issued in panes of 100, are provided as Canal ar Scott 100, v a brochure value of $1.75 unused and also $1.40 used. The overprint layout on rotary press stamps is called form B.

Flat-plate prints the the 1¢ Franklin stamp v gauge 11 perforations, overprinted “CANAL ZONE” and also issued as panes of 6 in multipane booklets through interleaves and also cardboard covers, are provided as Canal zone Scott 71e, with a brochure value of $80 in unused condition only.

Flat-plate prints the the 1¢ Franklin stamp v gauge 11 perforations, overprinted “CANAL ZONE” and also issued in panes that 100, are provided as Canal zone Scott 71, with a magazine value the $1.40 unused and also $1 used. The overprint style on flat-plate stamps is called kind A.

Rotary press prints v gauge 11 through 10½ perforations overprinted “Nebr.” are detailed as Scott 669, with a catalog value that $3.25 unused and also $2.25 used.

Rotary press prints v gauge 11 by 10½ perforations overprinted “Kans.” are noted as Scott 658, with a catalog value of $2.50 unused and also $2 used.

In the Scott stamp catalogs, 16 various 1¢ environment-friendly Benjamin Franklin stamps that the 1922 United claims definitive collection share style No. A155. Some space common; some are rare. Learning just how to identify each one is vital lesson for specialists.

By Ken Lawrence

Most 1¢ green Benjamin Franklin stamps are common and valued at much less than $1, yet two rotary press varieties that look almost the same as typical flat-plate issues are scarce and also worth thousands. Ken Lawrence defines how to understand and identify the rare ones.

Is her stamp United says Scott 594 or 596?

Probably not. These room the scarce (Scott 594) and also rare (596) rotary press 1¢ environment-friendly Benjamin Franklin stamps that 1924 through gauge 11 perforations both horizontally and vertically.

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The 1¢ eco-friendly Franklin stamps are amongst the most typical of every United claims stamps issued from 1922 come 1938. To a novice lock seem the same to the rarely ones, yet experienced stamp collectors have the right to tell the difference.

The Scott devoted Catalogue that United says Stamps and also Covers perform 16 various stamps that share the same design form A155 engraved design. That total includes sheet, booklet and coil stamps; overprinted varieties; flat-plate and also rotary press prints; stamps with different perforation measurements; and also an imperforate issue.

All those stamps are depicted here, however to a true specialist, those represent only the beginning. One can go on to collect shade shades, gum varieties, dual transfers and other bowl varieties, bowl numbers and other marginal markings, vending- and affixing-machine perforations, errors, freaks, oddities, cancellations, postal uses and other amazing features.

But right here we are concerned with two that are seldom seen.

Common Look-Alike 1¢ Franklin Stamps

These space the usual 1¢ Franklin look-alikes: Scott 552 was published from flat plates. It has gauge 11 perforations in both dimensions, yet its printed design is smaller sized than one of two people of the rarely ones. That is narrower 보다 Scott 594 and shorter than Scott 596, although all 3 stamps have equivalent perforations.

Another means to identify a flat-plate stamp is come look top top the back. It will certainly usually have actually specks of eco-friendly ink, referred to as set-off, transferred once printed sheets to be stacked one on peak of an additional to dry. Rotary press stamps were dried by pass the printed web through a cook chamber before being rolled up, so they seldom have set-off on the back.

For collectors that know how to usage a perforation gauge properly and also who take mindful measurements, it isn’t difficult to identify the common rotary push sheet stamps the share this design. Scott 578 has actually gauge 11 through 10 perforations; Scott 581, gauge 10; and also Scott 632, gauge 11 by 10½. Yet careless measurements can lead to faulty identification, so always be meticulous as soon as so much is in ~ stake.

Rotary push Coil Production

All coil stamps that the 1922 series were published on small intaglio rotary presses created by Benjamin R. Stickney a decade earlier. Horizontal layout coils were published from 170-subject curved plates, 10 subjects across the plate and also 17 topics in the rotating dimension. Curvature of the plates stretched the engraved photos in the horizontal dimension, for this reason the printed photos are more comprehensive than sheet and booklet stamps printed from flat plates.

Two key were printed in tandem, so the when placed together on the push they formed a cylindrical surface ar 34 topics in circumference, through a heat of ink printed in the space where the bowl adjoined. Collectors call the two stamps the straddle the joint heat “line pairs,” which space premium items. The 1¢ Franklin horizontal coils are listed as Scott 597.

The magazine advises customers that the stamp architecture of Scott 594 measures about 19¾ through 21¼ millimeters, and also Scott 596 measures roughly 19¼ through 22½mm. Unfortunately, inexperienced collectors have actually seldom been trained to make reliably precise measurements, and also they regularly tend to check out rulers optimistically.The consequence is invariably disappointment. All also often, castle misidentify a usual Scott 552 as either 594 or 596; countless are wake up to believe experts who advise them of their mistakes.

In my opinion, a better method is come understand just how these various stamps were manufactured, and why they space different. V that knowledge, hopeful identification becomes an exercise in using those lessons come the study of each stamp.

Vertical style coils were printed from 150-subject plates of the exact same size but with the dimensions in a perpendicular layout, 10 subjects across the plate and also 15 topics in the rotating dimension, for this reason those plates once paired had a cylindrical one of 30 topics with joint lines in ~ 15-subject intervals.

Curvature that those plates extended the engraved photos in the vertical dimension, so the printed pictures are taller than sheet-stamp prints from level plates and also narrower 보다 horizontal layout coil stamps. The 1¢ Franklin vertical coils are detailed as Scott 604.

During the years as soon as Scott 597 and also 604 coil stamps were produced, both layouts were perforated gauge 10 in between subjects in one dimension across the published web and finished on Stickney coilers that slit each heat apart and also rolled it up, through manila leader and trailer strips attached to the inner and also outer end of the stamp ribbons.

Both formats were offered in 500- and also 1,000-stamp roll wound v the gum side in.

Horizontal coils also were accessible on distinct order in 3,000-stamp roll wound with the gum next out, come accommodate individuals of Mailometer high-speed office mail machines. Yet no smaller rolls were issued until lengthy afterward, therefore perforated net pieces at the beginning and also end the the webs that were too short to end up as 500-stamp roll were set aside, designated “waste.”

Most of those leftover piece of coil waste had actually gauge 10 perforations throughout the document web width, however smaller finish pieces left over from threading and also disengaging the perforator had actually no perforations in ~ all. Yet every these scraps bore acceptable engraved 1¢ Franklin prints. Although they to be too tiny for coil pieces, they can be valuable as paper stamps if they to be perforated in both dimensions and also broken up right into panes.

Rotary push Coil Waste

The bureau of Engraving and Printing policy of salvaging coil garbage had begun in 1919 as soon as the 1908-21 Washington-Franklin collection was tho current, and also continued together 1922 collection stamps replaced them. This enabled the BEP come invoice the write-up Office Department for those perfect stamps rather of taking in the expense of dealing with the waste as spoilage.

Because the need for horizontal format coils was great, substantial quantities of horizontal coil rubbish accumulated, i m sorry the BEP processed into finished sheets. Through separating them in ~ the joint lines, every sheet to be 17 subjects large and 10 subjects high, representing the horizontal coil key layout. (Quantities that vertical layout waste were negligible, for this reason those were never ever made into finished paper stamps.)

Since almost all the pieces to be salvaged had currently been perforated gauge 10 vertically, all they necessary was horizontal perforations to complete that component of the process. The sheet perforators were fitted v gauge 11 pen spacings, as viewed on the Scott 552 flat-plate stamps, therefore one or much more of those perforators finished the stage, yielding stamps through gauge 11 through 10 link perforations, Scott 578.

(Coil waste stamps of the 2¢ carmine George Washington style had to be issued first, and also in higher quantity, however here we are involved with 1¢ Franklin stamps.)

The POD did not think about these to be new stamps, for this reason no notice accompanied their appearance in the autumn of 1923. After ~ collectors learned of their existence, the POD inserted sheets the 170 on revenue at the Philatelic agency in Washington, D.C.

Because no various other 1¢ Franklin stamps have actually compound perforations the measure 11 through 10, these are seldom misidentified by competent collectors. However coil waste do from tiny pieces that had not passed with the coil perforator is not so simple to identify.

Rotary push Coil rubbish Perforated 11 by 11

Scott 594, the rotary press coil stamp v gauge 11 perforations in both dimensions, was very first reported in April 1925. By then, coil waste production had ceased, so there were no more to it is in had and none easily accessible for philatelic sale.

The BEP had actually kept no separate records of amounts produced, yet they must have actually been small. In the publication Linn’s United states Stamps 1922-26, Gary Griffith available an calculation of 51,000.

Known instances were supplied at three brand-new York City write-up offices in between March and also October 1924.

The Robert A. Siegel Auction Galleries census that Scott 594 lists 11 unused with gum, seven unused there is no gum, 92 offered singles turn off cover (four are on piece), 4 pairs turn off cover (two top top piece), and five covers, one of which is franked v a pair, for a complete of 124 separation, personal, instance stamps, at least one of i m sorry is bad damaged.

Both the flat-plate paper stamp, Scott 552, and this scarce coil rubbish stamp, Scott 594, have gauge 11 perforations in both dimensions, so it is not easy to tell castle apart. As noted previously, the printed architecture of each coil waste rubber stamp is slightly broader than that is flat-plate counterpart, but the distinction in broad is much less than one millimeter, so making use of a ruler is not the best technique of identification.

The allude here is to save in mind the Scott 594 began as a coil rubber stamp print, the same as the really Scott 597 coil, for this reason the easiest way to identify the previous is to view whether the printed design on the rubber stamp is precisely as wide as the printed style on a 1¢ Franklin coil provided for comparison.

Then come double-check, compare it with a usual Scott 552 1¢ Franklin sheet stamp. The printed design of a real Scott 594 is visibly wider than the flat-plate sheet stamp image. If the rubber stamp passes both that those tests, it have to be submitted to one expertizing business for authentication.

Discovery! A $25,000 covering that expense 25¢

Shown is a cover, not consisted of in the Siegel census, which has a pair of real Scott 594 coil rubbish stamps ~ above it, through a 2015 Scott catalog value that $25,000. The owner, Oklahoma collector Roland Austin, to buy it because that 25¢, fulfilling every collector’s dream the discovery.

Here is his story:

I was at the Wichita Stamp display in 1999 when a dealer come in and also dumped crate of covers out onto three or 4 tables priced at four for a dollar. Together I was going v the piles, ns came across a cover with an auxiliary marking which caught my eye, yet the 2¢ included postage was canceled by a smudge of ink rather of a dated cancel, which ns did not uncover appealing, so I placed the cover ago and moved on to one more table.

As ns did, I made decision that the auxiliary marking was a great deal for 25¢, so i went earlier and retrieved the smudged cover and put it in mine pile. Showing up at home, I placed the cover in my crate of assistant markings and also did no look at this covers for number of months, and also had no plans to, until I read an article around the Bristol pane .

I psychic this cover had actually a 2¢ stamp through a red line on it, so ns dug the out and also checked the perfs and also stamp size to view if i had discovered a gem. Although not surprised, i was disappointed that it was no a Bristol pane example. Ns looked at the added two 1¢ stamps and also thought, “common work-horse stamps.”

Why I checked the 1¢ stamps, I do not know; perhaps because I currently had mine perf gauge out and also just wanted to use it. Certain enough, they were rotating printing, therefore that supposed they had actually to it is in perf 10. When I can not gain the perfs to complement gauge 10, I believed I had actually mismeasured, thinking, “Rotary press-printed stamps with 11 x 11 perforations?”

Rechecking, it to be a definite rotary printing and also gauge 11! upon looking through my Scott catalogue, I found the listing the this stamp and also was stunned the this cover did, indeed, rotate out to be a gem, yet not for the factor I first suspected.

After enduring bouts the ridicule native friends in the hobby for daring to believe he had uncovered a true rarity, Austin it is registered his cover to the American Philatelic Expertizing Service, i beg your pardon issued certificate No. 158888, date Nov. 23, 2004, that asserted it come be actual in all respects. He has one of just two recognized used bag of Scott 594. Both stamps have very fine centering.

Rotary push Sheet Stamps

Large Stickney rotary presses started production that 1922 series 1¢ Franklin stamps in 1923, published from 400-subject curved plates laid the end in 10 by 10 quadrants, every of which surrendered one 100-subject pane of paper stamps. Curvature of the plates stretched the engraved pictures in the vertical dimension, so the printed images are taller 보다 prints from level plates.

This stimulate in May and June 1923 inaugurated the manufacturing of bureau precanceled stamps that were overprinted in black ink at a relief to press station throughout the same run ~ above the Stickney push that printed the intaglio rubber stamp design.

Just just like coil production on the little rotary presses, two plates were printed in tandem, so that when placed together top top the press they created a cylindrical surface 40 subjects in circumference plus interpane gutter spaces, v a line of ink published in the an are where the key adjoined. Joint lines on paper stamps appear at the optimal or bottom sheet of printed panes, no between nearby stamp subjects, for this reason there are no sheet rubber stamp line pairs to collect.

Until 1927, rotary press sheet and also booklet stamps to be processed ~ above a bar-and-wheel perforator that applied gauge 10 perforations in both horizontal and also vertical direction simultaneously, which made them easy to distinguish from flat-plate sheet stamps that had actually gauge 11 perforations.

Rotary press Sheet Waste

Some amount of rotary sheet-stamp manufacturing was no perforated gauge 10, more than likely pieces the were at the leading finish of the printed web when it was fed v the gauge 10 perforator. One truth might help explain why these stamps were ultimately salvaged and finished through gauge 11 perforations: In accepting orders for Bureau precanceled stamps, the BEP compelled postmasters come order castle in amounts of at the very least 250,000 coil stamps or 500,000 sheet stamps. Smaller amounts were precanceled locally.

According come Gary Griffith, the initial 1¢ Franklin precancel orders were for four cities: brand-new York, Cleveland, Chicago and also Kansas City (Missouri). Come manufacture half a million stamps from paired 400-subject plates compelled 625 impressions that both plates for each city. No doubt the printers ran number of extras to permit for spoilage, however suppose the women who were responsible because that perforating and also completing the orders found that they were a couple of sheets brief for the Kansas City order.

I think that’s what happened. Gift resourceful, castle retrieved the unperforated scrap from the perforating station, handle them on a gauge 11 sheet perforator that had actually been set to take right into account the taller vertical measurement of these prints, and perforated sufficient of them to to fill the balance that the Kansas City order. Having taken that trouble, castle probably likewise perforated one or 2 pieces that had been printed when the overprint unit ~ above the press was disengaged, and inserted those into continuous sheet rubber stamp orders so they were not wasted.

Sheet garbage of the rotary press 1¢ green Washington stamps of the previous issue, Scott 544, and also black 2¢ Warren G. Harding memorial stamps, Scott 613, had actually been produced, but fewer examples of Scott 596 exist 보다 either of those. In fact, Scott 596 is the rarest 20th-century non-error U.S. Postage stamp. Had it been discovered while the problem was fresh, more might have actually been found, but the very first report of their existence appeared in 1936, a dozen years too late.

The Siegel census has actually recorded five instances with plain cancels and also eight precanceled Kansas City, Mo. In the Feb. 9 concern of Linn’s, page 8, Michael Baadke report a newly uncovered precanceled example that was booked to be marketed by Harmer-Schau Auction Galleries in ~ its Feb. 13-15 sale held in conjunction v the Ameristamp Expo display at Riverside, Calif., and I am mindful of one other, because that a existing tally that 15.

Summing increase the essential Differences

Scott 581 was printed on the rotary press, but it has gauge 10 perforations in both dimensions. That is printed architecture is the same size together Scott 596, therefore the perforation spacing is the only difference. Both room taller than Scott 552 flat-plate sheet stamps.

Scott 632 also was printed on the rotating press, but it has gauge 11 perforations throughout the top and bottom, and gauge 10½ perforations along the left and right edges. That is printed architecture is the exact same size as Scott 596, so an accurate measurement the the perforations is necessary, because the difference in between the two is an extremely small.

Two coil stamps also have the exact same 1¢ eco-friendly Franklin design. Scott 597 is a horizontal format coil stamp with directly edges in ~ the top and bottom, and also gauge 10 perforations top top the left and also right sides.

Short printed ends of these coil stamp prints were salvaged as so-called coil waste. Instances with gauge 10 perforations along the left and right sides and also gauge 11 perforations throughout the top and bottom are Scott 578 coil rubbish stamps. Examples with gauge 11 perforations on all four sides room scarce Scott 594 coil garbage stamps.

All horizontal layout coil and also coil rubbish stamps have broader printed draft than any kind of of the various other look-alikes.

Scott 604 is a vertical format 1¢ Franklin coil rubber stamp with straight edges in ~ the left and right, and gauge 10 perforations in ~ the top and bottom. It has actually the tallest style of every the 1¢ Franklins, taller even than rotary push sheet stamps Scott 581 and also Scott 596. No vertical coil rubbish stamps were ever issued.

With those pointers together a guide, every collector deserve to join the hunt for previously unrecognized rarities.

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The photograph of Scott 632a is shown courtesy that the American Philatelic culture Reference Collection. Other photos are courtesy the Robert A. Siegel Auction Galleries.